See also:Personal attire in India so far resembles a
See also:uniform that a
See also:resident can tell from a garb alone the native place, religion and social
See also:standing of the wearer . This is still true, though the
See also:present facility of intercommunication has had its effect in tending to assimilate the appearance of natives . Together with costume it is necessary to study the methods of wearing the hair, for each
See also:race adopts a different method . The population of India, of which the
See also:main divisions are religious, falls naturally into four groups, (i) Mahommedans, (2)
See also:Hindus, (3) Sikhs, (4)
See also:Parsees . To these may be added II aboriginal races, such as Bhils, Sonthals, Gonds, &e., whose costume is chiefly noticeable; from its
See also:absence .
See also:Mahommedan Men.— Apart from the two sects, Sunnis and Shias, whose garb differs in some respects, there are four families of Moslems, viz . Pathans, Moguls, Syeds and Sheiks . The first came to India with Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in A.D . 1002; the second are of Tatar origin and came to India with
See also:Baber; the Syeds claim descent from Mahomet, while Sheiks comprise all other Mussulmans, including converted Hindus . It is now no longer possible to distinguish these families by their turbans as was formerly the case . Hair.—In the hadis, or traditional sayings of Mahomet other than those to be found in the
See also:Koran, it is laid down that the
See also:head is to be shaved and the
See also:beard to be allowed to grow naturally to " a legal " length, i.e . 7 or 8 in. long .
This is known as fitrah or the
See also:custom of prophets . The beard is frequently dyed with
See also:henna and
See also:indigo for much the same reasons as in
See also:Europe by elderly men; this is entirely optional . The wearing of whiskers while shaving the
See also:chin was a
See also:Mogul fashion of the 17th and 18th centuries and is now seldom seen except among Deccani Mahommedans . The mustachios must not grow below the
See also:line of the upper
See also:lip, which must be clearly seen; a division or parting is made below the
See also:nose . The
See also:lower lip is also carefully kept clear . Hair under the arms or elsewhere on the
See also:body except the
See also:breast is always removed . Mahommedan clothing for indoor
See also:wear consists of three pieces: (a) Head-
See also:dress, (b) body-covering, (c) covering for the legs . Head-dress.—This is of two kinds: the
See also:turban and the cap . The former is chiefly worn in
See also:northern India, the latter in Oudh and the
See also:United Provinces . What is known in Europe as a turban (from the Persian sarband, a binding for the head) is in India divided into two classes . The first, made of a single piece of
See also:cloth 20 to 30 in. wide and from 6 to 9 yds. long, is bound
See also:round the head from `right to
See also:left or from left to right indifferently and quite simply, so as to
See also:form narrow angles over the forehead and at the back . This form is called amamdh (Arabic), dastar (Persian), shimla or shamld, safa, lungi, seld, rumal, ordopatta .
The terms amdmdh and dastdr are used chiefly with reference to the turbans of priests andulema, that is learned and religious persons . They are usually
See also:white; formerly Syeds wore them of
See also:colour . They are never of bright
See also:hue . The lungi is made of cloth of a
See also:special kind manufactured mostly in
See also:Ludhiana . It is generally blue and has an ornamented border . In the case of Pathans and sometimes of Punjabi Moslems it is bound round a tall red conical cap called a kulfah (
See also:Plate I. fig . 1): The ends are frequently allowed to hang down over the shoulders, and are called shimla or shamla, terms which also apply to the whole head-dress . The names
See also:sofa, sela, . umal and dopdtta are sometimes given to this' form of turban . The sela is gaudier and More ornamental generally; it is worn by the nobles and wealthier classes." The second form of the turban is known as the pagri.1 This head-dress is of
See also:Hindu origin but is much worn by Mahommedans . It is a single piece of cloth 6 to 8 in. wide, and of any length from 1 o to 50 yds . The methods of binding the pagri are innumerable, each method having a distinctive name as arabi (Arab fashion); mansabi (official fashion, much used in the Deccan); mushakhi (sheik fashion); chakridar (worn by hadjis, that is those who have made the pilgrimage to
See also:Mecca); khirki-ddr (a fashion of piling the cloth high, adopted by retainers of
See also:great men); latuddr (top-shaped, worn by kayasths or writers); joridar (the. cloth
See also:twisted into rope shape) (Plate I. fig . 6); siparali (
See also:shield-shaped, worn by the Shia
See also:sect) ; murassa, or nastdlikh (ornately bound), latpati (carelessly bound) (Plate I. fig .
4) . Many other fashions which it would be difficult to describe can best be learned by studying pictures with the help of. a competent teacher . The chira is a pagri of checked cloth . The mandil is ofgold or highly ornamented cloth; it is worn by nobles and persons of distinction . The cap or topi is not bound round the head, but is placed ' This has been Englished by Anglo-
See also:Indians into " puggaree " or " pugree " and applied to a
See also:scarf of white
See also:cotton or
See also:wound round a
See also:hat or
See also:helmet as a
See also:protection against the
See also:sun.upon it . It is made of cut and sewn cloth . Some varieties are dopallari, a
See also:skull-cap; kishtinumd, or
See also:boat-shaped cap; galtopi, a round cap of the kind known in England as " pork-
See also:pie "; bezwi, or
See also:egg-shaped cap; sigoshid, or three-cornered cap; chaugoshia, or four-cornered cap; tajdar, or
See also:crown-shaped cap; &c . Many other caps are named after the locality of manufacture or some peculiarity of make, e.g . Kashmire-kitopi; jhalarddr, fringed cap, &c . A form of cap much worn in Bengal and western India is known as Irani kulldh, or Persian cap . It is made of goatskin and is shaped like a
See also:tarbush but has no tassel . The cap worn in
See also:weather is called top, to pa, or kantop (ear-cover) (Plate I. fig .
2); these are sometimes padded with cotton . Caps are much worn by Mussulmans of
See also:Lucknow and other cities of the United provinces . The tarbush or
See also:turki-topi was introduced into India by
See also:Sir Sayyid Ahmad (Plate I. fig . 3) . It must not be confused with the Moorish "
See also:fez," which is skull-shaped . The tarbush is of Greek origin and was adopted by Sultan Mahmud of
See also:Turkey in the early
See also:part of the 19th century . To remove the head-dress of whatever kind is, in the East, an
See also:act of discourtesy; to strike it off is a deep insult . Clothing . :The following rules from the hadith or traditional sayings of the
See also:prophet are noteworthy:—" Wear white garments, for verily they are full of cleanliness, and pleasant to the
See also:eye." " It is lawful for the woman of my
See also:people to clothe herself in silken garments, and to wear ornaments of gold; but it is forbidden to man: any man who shall wear silken garments in this
See also:world, shall not wear them in the next." "
See also:God will not be merciful to him who through vanity wears long
See also:trousers " (i.e. reaching below the
See also:ankle) . The foregoing rules are now only observed by the ultra-orthodox, such'as the Wahabi sect and by ulemas, or learned elderly men . The Mogul
See also:court of Delhi, especially during. the reign of Mahoinmed Shah, nick-named Rangila or the "
See also:dandy," greatly influenced
See also:change in these matters . Coloured clothing, gold ornaments and silken raiment began to be wqrn commonly by Mussulman men in his reign .
For the upper part of the body the
See also:principal article of clothing is the
See also:aria . The Persian name for this is pairahen and the Arabic kamis, whence " chemise." This kurtd is the
See also:equivalent for the
See also:shirt of Europe . It is usually of white cotton, and has the opening or gala in front, at the back, or on either side in-differently . It was formerly fastened with strings, but now with the ghundi (the old form of button) and tukmah or
See also:loop . In
See also:southern India,
See also:Gujarat and in the United Provinces the kurta is much the same as to length and
See also:fit as the
See also:English shirt; as the traveller goes northward from Delhi to the Afghan border he
See also:sees the kurta becoming longer and looser till he finds the
See also:Pathan wearing it almost to his ankles, with very full wide sleeves . The sleeves are everywhere long and are sometimes fastened with one or two buttons at the
See also:wrist . Mussulmans always wear some form of trousers . They are known as izdr (Arabic) or pa'ejdma2 (Persian) . This article of clothing is sometimes loose, sometimes tight all the way, sometimes loose as far as the
See also:knee and tight below like
See also:riding breeches . They are fastened round the
See also:waist with !a scarf or
See also:string called kamarband (waistband) or izdrband, and are usually of white cotton . The varieties of cut are sharai or canonical, orthodox, which reach to the ankles and fit as close to the
See also:leg as
See also:European trousers; rums or ghararedar, which reach to the ankles but are much wider than European trousers (this
See also:pattern is much worn by the Shias); and tang or
See also:chase, reaching to the ankles, from which to the knee they fit quite close . When this last kind is " rucked " at the ankle it is called churiddr (Plate I. fig .
4) . They are sometimes buttoned at the ankle, especially in the
See also:district . The shalwdr pattern, 2 Anglicized as " pyjamas " (in
See also:America "pajamas "), the
See also:term is used of a form of
See also:night-wear for men which has now generally superseded the night-shirt . This consists of a loose coat and trousers of silk, wool or other material; the trousers are fastened by a
See also:cord round the waist . very large round the waist and
See also:hanging in folds, is worn by unmarried ones . In
See also:Kashmir a small round cap, goltopi, is worn . Pathans, Baluchis, Sindis, Multanis, &c . The new fashion in vogue amongst the younger generation of Mussulman is called the ikbarah or patalunnuma, which is like the European trousers . They are usually made of
See also:calico; they have no buttons but are fastened with string (kamarband) . Bathing drawers are called ghutannah and reach to the knee . The tight drawers worn by wrestlers are called janghiah . Garments for outdoor wear are the anga, or angarkha, the chapkan, the achkan or sherwani; the anga, a coat with full sleeves, is made of any material, white or coloured .
It is slit at the sides, has perpendicularly cut side-pockets, and is fastened with strings just below the breast . It is opened on the right or left side according to
See also:local custom . The anga is now considered old-fashioned, and is chiefly worn by elderly men or religious persons . It is still not uncommon in Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and at native courts, but is being superseded by the achkan (Plate I. fig . 4), which is buttoned straight down the front . Both anga and achkan reach to a little below the knee, as also does the chapkan, a relic of Mogul court dress, best known as the shield-like and highly adorned coat worn by
See also:government chaprasis (Plate II. fig . 3) . Over the anga is sometimes worn an overcoat called a choga; this is made of any material, thick or thin, plain or ornamented; it has one or two fastenings only, loops below the breast whence it hangs loosely to below the knees . The choga is sometimes known by its Arabic names
See also:aba or kaba, terms applied to it when worn by priests or ulemas . In cold weather Pathans and other border residents wear posteens, sleeved coats made of sheepskin with the woolly side in . In India farther south in cold weather an overcoat called dagla is worn; this is-an anga padded with cotton wool . A padded choga is called labada; when very heavily padded farghul .
Whereas the European wears his waistcoat under his coat, the Indian wears his over his anga or chapkan (not over the achkan) . A sleeveless waistcoat generally made of silk is called a sodari; when it has
See also:half sleeves it is called nimastin; the full-sleeved waistcoat worn in winter padded with cotton is called mirzdi . For ceremonial purposes a coat called jdma is worn . This fits closely as to the upper part of the body, but flows loosely below the waist . It is generally white, and is fastened in front by strings . In Gujarat and other parts of western India are to be found classes of Moslems who differ somewhat from those met with elsewhere, such as Memans,
See also:Boras and Khojas . The first are Sunnis: the two last Shias . Memans wear (r) a gold embroidered skull-cap, (2) a long kamis fastened at the
See also:neck with 3 or 4 buttons on a gold chain, (3) sadariya, i.e. a tight waistcoat without sleeves, fastened in front with small silk buttons and loops, (4) an over-waistcoat called shaya-sadriya instead of the anga, with sleeves, and slits at the sides (probably of Arab origin) . When he does not wear a skull-cap his amamah is made after the arched Arab form, or is a Kashmir scarf wound round a skull-cap made of
See also:straw . The
See also:Bora adopts one of four forms of pagri; the
See also:Ujjain, a small neatly bound one; the Ahmadabad, a loose high one; the
See also:fuller and higher than the Ujjain pattern (Plate I. fig . 5); or the Kathiawddd, a conical turban with a gold stripe in the
See also:middle of the
See also:cone . The Bora wears the anga, otherwise he resembles the Meman .
The Khoja wears a pagri smaller than the Meman's, called a Moghaldi phenta; this leaves a portion of the head
See also:bare at the back . The material is always of kashida, a kind of embroidered cloth . Amongst Mahommedans only Pathans wear ear-rings .
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