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Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 158 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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INDIA AND CEYLON Oriental, with the title of Turkish Spy, Lettres chinoises, &c. These productions were usually issued in periodical form, and, besides an immense amount of worthless tittle-tattle, contain some valuable matter. During the first half of the century France has little of importance to show in periodical literature. The Nouvelles ecclesiastiques (1728–1803) were first printed and circulated secretly by the Jansenists in opposition to the Constitution unigenitus. The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplement des nouvelles ecclesiastiques (1734–1748). The promising title may have had something to do with the temporary success of the Memoires secrets de la republique des lettres (1744–1748) of the marquis d'Argens. In the Observations sur les ecrits modernes (1735–1743) Desfontaines held the gates of Philistia for eight years against the Encyclopaedists, and even the redoubtable Voltaire himself. It was continued by the Jugements sur quelques ouvrages nouveaux (1744–1745). The name of Freron, perhaps the most vigorous enemy Voltaire ever encountered, was long connected with Lettres sur quelques ecrits de ce temps (1749–1754), followed by L'Annee litteraire (1754–1790). Among the contributors of Freron was another manufacturer of criticism, the abbe de la Porte, who, having quarrelled with his confrere, founded Observations sur la litterature moderne (1749--1752) and L'Observateur litteraire (1758–1761). A number of special organs came into existence about this period. The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (175r–,772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 17J9; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764–1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedie militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778. We have already noticed several journals specially devoted to one or other foreign literature. It was left to Freron, Grimm, Prevost and others in 1754 to extend the idea to all foreign productions, and the Journal etranger (1754–1762) was founded for this purpose. The Gazette litteraire (1764–1766), which had Voltaire, Diderot and Saint-Lambert among its editors, was intended to swamp the small fry by criticism; the Journal des dames (1759–1778) was of a light magazine class; and the Journal de monsieur (1776–1783) had three phases of existence, and died after extending to thirty volumes. The Memoires secrets pour servir a l'histoire de la republique des lettres (1762–1787), better known as Memoires de Bachaumont, from the name of their founder, furnish a minute account of the social and literary history for a period of twenty-six years. Of a similar character was the Correspondence litteraire secrete (1774–1793), to which Mctra was the chief contributor. L'Esprit des Journaux (1772–1818) forms an important literary and historical collection, which is rarely to be found complete. The movement of ideas at the close of the century may best be traced in the Annales politiques, civiles, et litteraires (1777–1792) of Linguet. The Decade philosophique (year V., or 1796/1797), founded by Ginguene, is the first periodical of the magazine class which appeared after the storms of the Revolution. It was a kind of resurrection of good taste; under the empire it formed the sole refuge of the opposition. By a decree of the 17th of January 1800 the consulate reduced the number of Parisian journals to thirteen, of which the Decade was one; all the others, with the exception of those dealing solely with science, art, commerce and advertisements, were suppressed. A report addressed to Bonaparte by Fievice1 in the year XI. (1802/1803) furnishes a list of fifty-one of these periodicals. In the year XI II. (1804/1805) only seven non-political serials were permitted to appear. Between 1815 and 1819 there was a constant struggle between freedom of thought on the one hand and the censure, the police and the law officers on the other. This oppression led to the device of " semi-periodical " publications, of which La Minerve francaise (1818–1820) is an instance. It was the Satire Menippee of the Restoration, and was brought out four times a year at irregular intervals. Of the same class was the Bibliotheque historique (1818–182o), another anti-royalist organ. The censure was re-established in 182o and abolished in 1828 with the monopoly. It has always seemed impossible to carry on successfully in France a review upon the lines of those which have become so numerous and important in England. The Revue britannique (1825–1901) had, however, a long career. The short-lived Revue francaise 1828–183o), founded by Guizot, Remusat, De Broglie, and the doctrinaires, was an attempt in this direction. The well-known Revue des deux mondes was established in 1829 by Segur-Dupeyron and Mauroy, but it ceased to appear at the end of the year, and its actual existence dates from its acquisition in 1831 by Francois Buloz,2 a masterful editor, i The novelist and publicist Joseph Fievice (1767–1839), known for his relations with Napoleon I., has been made the subject for a study by Sainte-Beuve (Causeries, v. 172). 2 This remarkable man (1804–1877) began life as a shepherd. Educated through the charity of M. Naville, he came to Paris asunder whose energetic management it soon achieved a world-wide reputation. The most distinguished names in French literature have been among its contributors, for whom it has been styled the " vestibule of the Academy." It was preceded by a few months by the Revue de Paris (1829–1845), founded by Veron, who introduced the novel to periodical literature. In 1834 this was purchased by Buloz, and brought out concurrently with his other Revue. While the former was exclusively literary and artistic, the latter dealt more with philosophy. The Revue independanie (18.41-1848) was founded by Pierre Leroux, George Sand and Viardot for the democracy. The times of the consulate and the empire were the subjects dealt with by the Revue de l'empire (1842–1848). In Le Correspondent (1843), established by Montalembert and De Falloux, the Catholics and Legitimists had a valuable supporter. The Revue contemporaine (1852), founded by the comte de Belval as a royalist organ, had joined to it in 1856 the Athenaeum francais. The Revue germanigue (1858) exchanged' its exclusive name and character in 1865 to the Revue moderne. The Revue europeenne (1859) was at first subventioned , like the Revue contemporaine, from which it soon withdrew government favour. The Revue nationale (186o) appeared quarterly, and succeeded to the Magazin de librairie (1858). The number of French periodicals, reviews and magazines has enormously increased, not only in Paris but in the provinces. In Paris the number of periodicals published in 1883 was 1379; at the end of 1908 there were more than 3500 of all kinds. The chief current periodicals may be mentioned in the following order. The list includes a few no longer published. Archaeology.—Revue archeologique (186o), bi-monthly; Ami des monuments (1887); Bulletin de numismatique (1891); Revue biblique (1892); L'Annee epigraphique (1880)—a sort of supplement to the Corpus inscriptionum latinarum; Celtica (1903)—common to France and England; Gazette numismatique francaise (1897); Revue semitique d'epigraphie et d'histoire ancienne (1893); Bulletin monumental, bi-monthly; L'Intermediaire, weekly, the French " Notes and Queries," devoted to literary and antiquarian questions. Astronomy.—Annuaire astronomique et meteorologique (1901); Bulletin astronomique (1884), formerly published under the title Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et astronomiques. Bibliography. Annales de bibliographie theologique (1888) ; Le bibliographe moderne (1897) ; Bibliographie anatomique (1893); Bibliographie scientifique francaise (1902); Bulletin des bibliotheques et des archives (1884); Bulletin des livres relatifs a l'Amerique (1899); Courrier des bibliotheques (1910) ; Repertoire methodique de l'histoire moderne et contemporaine de la France (1898); Repertoire methodique du moyen age francais (1894) ; Revue bibliographique et critique des langues et litteratures romanes (1889) ; Revue des bibliotheques (1891) ; Polybiblion: revue bibliographique universelle, monthly; Revue generale de bibliographie francaise, bi-monthly. Children's Magazines.—L'Ami de la jeunesse; Le Jeudi de la jeunesse, weekly. Fashions.—La Mode illustree; Les Modes, monthly. Fine Arts.—Les Arts (1902); Gazette des beaux-arts (1859), monthly, with Chronique des arts; Revue de fart ancien et moderne (1897) monthly; L'Art decoratif, monthly, Art et decoration, monthly; L'Art pour tous, monthly; La Decoration, monthly; L'Architeciurejournal of the Soc. centrale des Architectes francais, weekly; L'Art (1875) is no longer published. Geography and Colonies.—Bulletin de geographic historique; Annales de geographie (1891), with useful quarterly bibliography; Nouvelles geographiques—supplement to the Tour du monde 0891); La Vie coloniale (1902); La Geographie, monthly, published by the Soc. de Geographie (1900); Revue de geographie, monthly; Revue geo,graphique internationale, monthly. History.—For long the chief organs for history and archaeology were the Bibliotheque de l'ecole des chartes (1835), appearing every two months and dealing with the middle ages, and the Cabinet historique (1855), a monthly devoted to MSS. and unprinted documents. The Revue historique (1876) appears bi-monthly; there is also the Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine. Law and Jurisprudence. Annales de droit commercial (1877) ; Revue algerienne et tunisienne de legislation et de jurisprudence (1885) ; Revue du droit public et de la science politique (1894) ; Revue generale du droit international public (1894). Literary Reviews.—The Revue des deux mondes and the Correspondant have already been mentioned. One of the first of European weekly reviews is the Revue critique (1866). The Revue politique et litteraire, successor to the Revue des tours litteraires (1863) and known as the Revue bleue, also appears weekly. Others of interest are: Antes, revue mensuelle de litterature (1904) ; L'Art et la vie (1892) ; Cosmopolis (1896) ; L'Ermitage (1890) ; Le Mercure de France, serie moderne (189o), a magazine greatly valued in literary circles; La Revue de Paris, fortnightly (1894), and the Nouvelle Revue (1879) a compositor, and by translating from the English earned sufficient to purchase the moribund Revue des deux mondes, which acquired its subsequent position in spite of the tyrannical editorial behaviour of the proprietor. Buloz is said to have eventually enjoyed an income of 365,000 francs from the Revue. I58 both serious rivals of the Revue des deux mondes; Revue francaise d'Edimbourg (1897); Revue germanique (1905); Le Livre (1880), dealing with bibliography and literary history, and La Revue latine (1902), no longer published; La Revue, monthly. Mathematics.—Intermediaire des mathematiciens (1894); Bulletin des sciences mathematiques (1896); Revue de mathematiques speciales (1890) ; Journal de mathematiques pures et appliquies, quarterly. Medicine.—Revue de midecine (1881) ; Annales de l'Ecole de plein exercise de medicine et de pharmacie de Marseille (1891); La Chronique medecale (1893); Revue de gynecologie, bi-monthly; La Semaine medicale, weekly; Journal d'hygiene, monthly. Military.—Revue des troupes coloniales, monthly; La Revue d'infantrie, monthly. Music.—Musica (1902); Revue d'histoire et de critique musicale (1901) ; Annales de la musique; Le Minestral, weekly. Philology.—L' Annie linguistique (1901–1902) ; Bulletin de la societi des parlers de France (1893) ; Bulletin des humanitis francais (1894) ; Bulletin hispanique (1899); Bulletin italien (1901); Lou-Gai-Sabe-Antoulongio prouvencalo (1905); Le Maitre phonetique (1886); Le Moyen Age (1888) ; Revue de la renaissance (1901); Revue de metrique et de versification (1894–1895) ; Revue des etudes grecques (1888) ; Revue des etudes rabelaisiennes (1903); Revue des parlers populaires (1902); Revue des patois (1887); Revue hispanique (1894); Revue celtique, quarterly; Revue de philologie francaise et de literature. Philosophy and Psychology. — Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Annee philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Annee psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904) ; Bulletin de l'inslitut general de psychologie (1903) ; Revue de l'hypnotisme el de la psychologie physiologique (1900) ; Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897). Physics and Chemistry.—Bulletin des sciences physiques (1888) ; L'Eclairage electrique (1894); Le Radium (1904); Revue generale des sciences pures et appliquees (1890); Revue pratique de l'ilectriciti (1892). Popular and Family Reviews.—A travers le monde (1898); Femina (1901); Je sais tout (1905); La Lecture moderne (1901); La Revue hebdomadaire (1892); Les Lectures pour tous (1898); Mon bonheur (1902); La Vie heureuse (1902). Science (General).—La Nature, weekly;. Revue scientifique (1863), weekly; La Science francaise, monthly.—Science (Applied): Les inventions illustrees, weekly; Revue industrielle, weekly.—Science (Natural) : Archives de biologie; Journal de botanique (1887); L'Annee biologique (1895) ; Revue des sciences naturelles de l'ouest (1891); Revue generale de botanique (1889) ; La Pisciculture pratique (1895).—Science (Political, Sociological and Statistical) : Annales economiques (founded as La France commerciale in 1885) ; L'Annee sociologique (1896–1897); Bulletin de l'office du travail (1894); Bulletin de l'office international du travail (1902) ; Le Mouvement socialiste—international bi-monthly (1899); Notices et comptes rendus de l'office du travail (1892); L'Orient et l'abeille du Bosphore (1889); Revue politique et parlementaire (1894) ; Revue international de sociologie, monthly.
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