See also:law, a proceeding on behalf of the
See also:crown against a subject otherwise than by
See also:indictment . A criminal information is a proceeding in the
See also:bench by the
See also:attorney-general without the intervention of a
See also:jury . The attorney-general, or, in his
See also:absence, the
See also:solicitor-general, has a right ex officio to
See also:file a criminal information in respect of any indictments, but not for treason, felonies or misprision of treason . It is, however, seldom exercised, except in cases which might be described as " enormous misdemeanours," such as those peculiarly tending to disturb or endanger the king's
See also:government, e.g. seditions, obstructing the king's
See also:officers in the execution of their duties, &c . In the
See also:form of the proceedings the attorney-general is said the boarders at the school took the
See also:quinine in the presence I to " come into the
See also:court of our
See also:lord the king before the king of a
See also:master every
See also:morning, there were scarcely any cases of himself at
See also:Westminster, and gives the court there to under-
See also:influenza among them, although the home boarders suffered stand and be informed that, &c." Then follows the statement nearly as much as before." He continues, " In a large girls' of the offence as in an indictment . The information is filed in school near
See also:London the same thing was ordered, and the girls the crown
See also:office without the leave of the court . An information and mistresses took their morning dose but the servants were forgotten . The result was that scarcely any girl or
See also:mistress suffered while the servants were all down with influenza." The liability to contract influenza, and the danger of an attack if contracted, are increased by depressing conditions, such as and for aggravated libels on public or private persons . Leave exposure to
See also:cold and to fatigue, whether
See also:mental or
See also:physical . 1 to file an information is obtained after an application to show
See also:Attention should, therefore, be paid to all
See also:measures tending to cause, founded on a sworn statement of the material facts of the
See also:maintenance of
See also:health . Persons who are attacked by influenza the case . should at once seek
See also:rest, warmth and medical treatment, and Certain suits might also be filed in
See also:Chancery by way of informa- they should bear in mind that the
See also:risk of relapse, with serious tion in the name of the attorney-general, but this
See also:species of complications, constitutes a chief danger of the disease. information was superseded by
See also:Order 1,
See also:rule 1 of the Rules of In addition to the ordinary text-books, see the series of articles the Supreme Court, 1883, under which they are instituted in-the by experts on different aspects in The Practitioner (London) for ordinary way .
Informations in the Court of
See also:Exchequer in
See also:January 1907. revenue cases, also filed by the attorney-general, are still resorted IN FORMA PAUPERIS (Latin, " in the character of pauper "), to (see A.-G. v .
See also:Williamson, 1889, 6o L.T . 930) . the legal phrase for a method of bringing or defending a case INFORMER, in a general sense, one who communicates in court on the
See also:part of persons without means . By an English information . The
See also:term is applied to a
See also:person who prosecutes
See also:statute of 1495 (11
See also:Hen . VII. c . 12), any poor person having in any of the courts of law those who break any law or penal cause of
See also:action was entitled to have a writ according to the nature statute . Such a person is called a
See also:common informer when he of the case, without paying the fees thereon . The statute of furnishes evidence on criminal trials or prosecutes for breaches 1495 was repealed by the Statute Law Revision and
See also:Civil of penal
See also:laws solely for the purpose of obtaining the
See also:penalty Procedure
See also:Act 1883, but its provisions, as well as the chancery recovered, or a
See also:share of it . An action by a common informer There is no routine treatment for influenza except
See also:bed . In all cases bed is advisable, because of the danger of
See also:lung complications, and in mild ones it is sufficient .
Severer ones must be treated according to the symptoms . Quinine has been much used .
See also:Modern "
See also:anti-pyretic " drugs hate also been extensively employed, and when applied with discretion they may be useful, but patients are not advised to prescribe them for them-selves .
See also:Sir Wm . Broadbent in a note on the prophylaxis of influenza recommends quinine in a dose of two grains every morning, and remarks: " I have had opportunities of obtaining extraordinary evidence of its protective power . In a large public school it was ordered to be taken every morning . Some of the boys in the school were home boarders, and it was found that while 1 57 . . .. . .. . .. 222 ,22 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 to ti 0 m o q f0 C1 m W G1 may also be filed at the instance of a private prosecutor for misdemeanours not affecting the government, but being peculiarly flagrant and pernicious .
Thus criminal informations have been granted for bribing or attempting to bribe public functionaries, 1 . Opalinopsis sepiolae, Foett.: a parasitic Holotrichous mouthless Ciliate from the
See also:liver of the Squid. a, branched meganucleus; b, vacuoles (non-contractile) . 2 . A similar specimen treated with picrocarmine, showing a remarkably branched and
See also:twisted meganucleus (a), in place of several nuclei . 3 . Anoplophrya naidos, Duj.; a mouth-less Holotrichous Ciliate parasitic in the
See also:worm Nais. a, the large axial meganucleus; b, contractile vacuoles . 4 . Anoplophrya proltfera, C. and L.; from the
See also:intestine of Clitellio . Remark-able for the adhesion of incomplete fission-products in a metameric series. a, meganucleus . 5 . Amphileptus gigas, C. and L . (
See also:Gymnostomaceae). b, contractile vacuoles; c, trichocysts (see fig .
2); d, mega-nucleus; e. pharynx . 6, 7 . Prorodon niveus, Ehr . (Gymnostomaceae). a, meganucleus; b, contractile vacuole; c, pharynx with horny cuticular lining . 6 . The fasciculate cuticle of the pharynx isolated .
See also:INFUSORIA 557 men, they included (r) Desmids, Diatoms and Schizomycetes, now regarded as essentially Plant
See also:Protista or Protophytes; (2)
See also:Sarcodina (excluding
See also:Foraminifera, as well as
See also:Radiolaria, which were only as yet known by their skeletons, and termed Polycystina), and (3) Rotifers, as well as (4) Flagellates and Infusoria in our
See also:present sense . F . Dujardin in his Ilistoire
See also:des zoophytes (1841) gave nearly as liberal an
See also:interpretation to the name; while C . T .
See also:Van Siebold (1845) narrowed it to its present limits save for the
See also:admission of several Flagellate families . O .
Butschli limited the
See also:group by removing the Flagel- lata,
See also:Dinoflagellata and Cystoflagellata (q.v.)under the name of "
See also:Mastigophora " proposed earlier by R . M . Diesing (1865) . We now define it thus: —Protozoa bounded by a permanent plasmic pellicle and consequently of definite form, never using pseudopodia for locomotion or ingestion, provided (at least in the
See also:young state) with ce numerous cilia or
See also:organs derived from cilia and equipped with a
See also:double nuclear apparatus: the larger (mega') nucleus usually dividing by constriction, and disappearing during conjugation: the smaller (micro-) nucleus (sometimes multiple) dividing by mitosis, and entering into conjugation and giving rise to the cycle of nuclei both large and small of the
See also:race succeeding conjugation . Thus defined, the Infusoria fall into two groups:—(r) Ciliata, with cilia or organs derived from cilia throughout their lives, provided with a single permanent mouth (absent in the parasitic Opalinopsidae) flush with the
See also:body or at the
See also:base of an oral depression, and taking in
See also:food by active swallowing or by ciliary action: (2) Suetoria, rarely ciliated except in the young state, } and taking in their food by suction through
See also:pro-q trusible hollow tentacles, usually numerous . The pellicle of the Infusoria is stronger and more permanent than in many Protozoa, and sometimes assumes the character of a
See also:mail of hard plates, closely fitting; but even in this case it undergoes solution soon after
See also:death . It is continuous with a
See also:firm ectosarc, highly differentiated in the Ciliata, and in both groups
See also:free from coarse movable granules . The endosarc is semifluid and
See also:rich in granules mostly " reserve " in nature, often showing proteid or
See also:fat reactions . One or more contractile vacuoles are pre-sent in some of the marine and all the
See also:freshwater species, and open to the
See also:surface by pores of permanent position: a
See also:system of canals in the deeper layers of the ectoplasm is sometimes connected with the vacucle . The body is often provided with not-living
See also:external formations " stalk " and " theca " (or lorica ") . The character of the nuclear apparatus excludes two groups both parasitic and mouthless: (I) the Trichonymphidae, with a single nucleus of
See also:Leidy, parasitic in
See also:Insects, especially Termites; (2) the Opalinidae, with several (often numerous)
See also:uniform nuclei, parasitic in the gut of
See also:Batrachia, &c., and producing 1-nuclear zoospores which conjugate . Both these families we unite into a group of Pseudociliata, which may be referred to the Flagellate (q.v.) .
Lankester in the last edition of this
See also:Encyclopaedia called attention to the doubtful position of Opalina, and Delage and Herouard placed Trichonymphidae among Flagellates . The theca or
See also:shell is present in some pelagic species (fig. iii . 3, 5) and in many of the attached species, notably among the Peritricha (fig. iii . 21, 22, 25, 26) and Suctoria (fig. viii . II); and is found in some free-swimming forms (fig. iii . 3, 5): it is usually chitinous, and forms a
See also:cup into which the animal, protruded when at its utmost
See also:elongation, can retract itself . In Metacineta mystacina it has several distinct slits (pylomes) for the passage of tufts of tentacles . In
See also:Stentor it is gelatinous; and in the Dictyocystids it is beautifully latticed . The stalk is usually solid, and
See also:expanded at the base into a disk in Suctoria . In Peritrichaceae (fig. iii . 8-22, 25, 26), the only ciliate group with a stalk, it grows for some
See also:time after its formation, and on fission two new stalks continue the old one, so as to form a branched colony (fig. iii . 18) .
See also:Vorticella (fig. iii . II, 12, 14, &c.) the stalk is hollow and elastic, and attached to it along a
See also:spiral is a is termed a popular or qui
See also:tam action, because it is brought by a person qui tam pro domino rege quanz pro se ipso sequitur . A suit by an informermust be brought within a
See also:year of the offence, unless a specific time is prescribed by the statute . The term informer is also used of an
See also:accomplice in
See also:crime who turns what is called " king's evidence " (see ACCOMPLICE) . In Scotland, informer is the term applied to the party who, in criminal proceedings, sets the lord
See also:advocate in motion .
INFLUENZA (syn. " grip," la grippe)
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