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INNOCENT X

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Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 582 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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INNOCENT X  . (Giovanni Battista Pamfili) was born in Rome on the 6th of May 1574, served successively as auditor of the Rota,
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nuncio to Naples, legate apostolic to Spain, was made cardinal in 1627, and succeeded Urban VIII. as pope on the 15th of September 1644 . Throughout his pontificate Innocent was completely dominated by his
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sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia Maidalchini, a woman of masculine spirit . There is no reason to credit the scandalous reports of an illicit
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attachment . Nevertheless, the influence of Donna Olimpia was baneful; and she made herself thoroughly detested for her inordinate ambition and rapacity . Urban VIII. had been French in his sympathies; but the papacy now shifted to the side of the Habsburgs, and there remained for nearly fifty years . Evidences of the change were numerous: Innocent promoted
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pro-
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Spanish cardinals; attacked the
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Barberini, proteges of Mazarin, and sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the independence of
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Portugal, then at war with Spain . As a
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reward he obtained from Spain and Naples the recognition of ecclesiastical immunity . In 1649 Castro, which Urban VIII. had failed to take, was wrested from the Farnese and annexed to the Papal States . The most worthy efforts of Innocent were directed to the reform of monastic discipline (1652) . His condemnation of
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Jansenism (16J3) was met with the denial of papal infallibility in matters of fact, and the controversy entered upon a new phase (see JANSENISM) . Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many
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Protestant princes, the most notable being Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in
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prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Munster, and its solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored .

Innocent died on the 7th of

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January 1655, and was succeeded by Alexander VII . For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff . Rom . ; and Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff . Rom . (Venice, 1687–1688) iv . 57o sqq . ; Ciampi's Innoc . X . Pamfili, et la sua
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Corte (Rome, 1878), gives a very full account of the period . Gualdus' (pseud. of Gregorio Leti; v.
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bibliog. note,
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art . "
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SIXTUS V.") Vita de Donna Olimpia Maidalchina (1666) is gossipy and untrustworthy; Capranica's Donna
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Olympia Pamfili (Milan, 1875, 3rd ed.) is fanciful and historically of no value .

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Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans., Austin), iii . 4o sqq . ; v . Reumont, Gesch. der Stadt Rom. iii . 2, p . 623 sqq . ; Brosch, Gesch.
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des . Kirchenstaates (188o) i . 409 sqq.; and the extended bibliography in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, s.v . " Innocenz X." (T . F .

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