INNOCENT X . (Giovanni Battista Pamfili) was
See also:born in Rome on the 6th of May 1574, served successively as auditor of the
See also:nuncio to Naples,
See also:legate apostolic to Spain, was made
See also:cardinal in 1627, and succeeded Urban VIII. as
See also:pope on the 15th of
See also:September 1644 . Throughout his pontificate Innocent was completely dominated by his
See also:law, Donna Olimpia Maidalchini, a woman of masculine spirit . There is no reason to
See also:credit the scandalous reports of an illicit
See also:attachment . Nevertheless, the influence of Donna Olimpia was baneful; and she made herself thoroughly detested for her inordinate ambition and rapacity . Urban VIII. had been French in his sympathies; but the papacy now shifted to the side of the Habsburgs, and there remained for nearly fifty years . Evidences of the
See also:change were numerous: Innocent promoted
See also:Spanish cardinals; attacked the
See also:Barberini, proteges of
See also:Mazarin, and sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the independence of
See also:Portugal, then at war with Spain . As a
See also:reward he obtained from Spain and Naples the recognition of ecclesiastical immunity . In 1649 Castro, which Urban VIII. had failed to take, was wrested from the Farnese and annexed to the Papal States . The most worthy efforts of Innocent were directed to the reform of monastic discipline (1652) . His condemnation of
See also:Jansenism (16J3) was met with the denial of papal
See also:infallibility in matters of fact, and the controversy entered upon a new phase (see JANSENISM) . Although the pontificate of Innocent witnessed the conversion of many
See also:Protestant princes, the most notable being
See also:Queen Christina of Sweden, the papacy had nevertheless suffered a perceptible decline in
See also:prestige; it counted for little in the negotiations at Munster, and its
See also:solemn protest against the peace of Westphalia was entirely ignored .
Innocent died on the 7th of
See also:January 1655, and was succeeded by
See also:Alexander VII . For contemporary lives of Innocent see Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum Pontiff . Rom . ; and Palazzi, Gesta Pontiff . Rom . (Venice, 1687–1688) iv . 57o sqq . ; Ciampi's Innoc . X . Pamfili, et la sua
See also:Corte (Rome, 1878), gives a very full account of the
See also:period . Gualdus' (pseud. of Gregorio Leti; v.
See also:bibliog. note,
See also:art . "
See also:SIXTUS V.") Vita de Donna Olimpia Maidalchina (1666) is gossipy and untrustworthy; Capranica's Donna
See also:Olympia Pamfili (Milan, 1875, 3rd ed.) is fanciful and historically of no value .
See also:Ranke, Popes (Eng. trans.,
See also:Austin), iii . 4o sqq . ; v .
See also:Reumont, Gesch. der Stadt Rom. iii . 2, p . 623 sqq . ;
See also:Brosch, Gesch.
See also:des . Kirchenstaates (188o) i . 409 sqq.; and the extended bibliography in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, s.v . " Innocenz X." (T . F .
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