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INTENDANT (from Lat. intendens, pres....

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Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 683 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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INTENDANT (from Lat. intendens, pres. part. of intendere, to apply the mind to, to watch over; cf. " superintendent "), the name used in early times in France to designate a functionary invested by the king with an important and durable commission .1 As early as the 14th century the title of intendentes or superinteridentes financiarum was given to the commissaries appointed by the king to levy the aides, or temporary subsidies. In the 16th century Francis I. created the intendants des finances, permanent functionaries who formed the central and superidr 1 In Germany the title Intendant is applied to the head of public institutions, more particularly to the high officials in charge of court theatres, royal gardens, palaces and the like. The director of certain civic theatres is now also sometimes styled Intendant. The title Generalintendant implies the same official duties, but higher rank. In the German army the Intendantur corresponds to the British quartermaster-general's and financial departments of the War Office, the French intendance militaire. Subordinate to these are the intendances (Intendanturen) under general officers commanding, the heads of which are in Germany called Korpsintendanten, and in France intendants-generaux, intendants militaires, &c. (see ARMY, ยง 58). needed; and such a criterion is not easy to formulate or to apply. If we institute inquiries with a view to ascertaining how the conceptual factor originates, it appears to be the result of analysis and abstraction, and to be reached by a process of comparison which becomes intentional and deliberate. If, for example, in educational procedure, we seek to assist children in forming concepts of colour, shape and material, we place before them a number of objects, some round, some square, some triangular; some red, some yellow, some blue; some made of paper, some of wood, some of flannel. Any given object is both red and square and made of flannel, blue and round and made of wood, and so on. We teach the child to group the objects, to put all the blues, yellows and reds together irrespective of shape or material; then all the rounds, squares and triangles together; then all which are made of like material. We thus help the children to grasp that though shape, colour and material are combined in each object, yet for the immediate purpose in hand one matters and the others do not matter. That which does matter is abstracted from the rest. The child has to analyse his experience and fix his attention on some given factor therein. He has to compare the objects intentionally, that is, for a definite end. He reaches, for example, the concept " blue" and realizes that the word may be applied to a number of particular objects differing in other respects, and that each is an example of what he understands by the word blue. Whether he could reach the concept without words is a question on which opinions differ. Locke held that animals are iracapable of the abstraction which is implied in such procedure. Dr Stout considers that are observation of their behaviour shows little if any animals evidence of intentional comparison. And it is apen concoptu- to discussion whether they are able to analyse the ally in- situations opened up by their perceptual behaviour. telligent? The matter cannot be fully considered here. It must suffice if enough has been said to show the nature of the distinction between perceptual and conceptual process. An example may, however, be given of the kind of observation which, since it was carefully planned and carried out, is of evidential value. Dr Alexander Hill's fox terrier was " taught " to open the side door of a large box by lifting a projecting latch. When the door swung open he was never allowed to find anything in the box, but was given a piece of biscuit from the hand. Then a warm chop-bone was put inside the box, which was placed in a courtyard so that the dog would pass it when no one was near, though he could be watched from the window. Details of the terrier's behaviour are given by Dr Hill in Nature (lxvii. 558, April 1903). The net result was that the dog failed to apply. at once his quite familiar experience of lifting the latch in the usual way. Here two situations were presented; first the box with people around and a piece of biscuit to be obtained from one of them by lifting the latch; secondly the box with no one near and a redolent chop-bone inside. To us it is obvious enough that the lifted latch is the key to the development of both situations; we analyse them so as to get the essential factor which matters. The dog apparently did not do so. He seemingly was incapable of this modest amount of analysis and abstraction. We can now see more clearly what was meant by saying that Romanes' phrase (that intelligence " implies a conscious know- ledge of the relation between means employed and Ambiguity of phrase ends attained ") is ambiguous. The dog which lifts "con- the latch of a gate and goes out when the gate swings scions open undoubtedly employs means to reach an end; kn mowledge" ns. a e he need not analytically think the means as conducive of to the end and the end as reached by the means; he need not conceive this relationship as exemplified in a number of particular cases; he need not cognize the universal as distinguished from the particulars. Perceptual experience, therefore, does not imply what Romanes states if his words are interpreted in terms of conception; it does, however, imply that the relation- Development of concept. administration in financial matters. They took the place of the generaux des finances and the " treasurers of France," who became provincial functionaries in the various generalites. The intendants des finances existed until the end of the ancien regime; they were at first under the authority of the surintendant, and subsequently under that of the controleur general des finances. The intendants des provinces date from the last thirty years of the 16th century. They were commissaries sent by the king with wide powers to restore order in the provinces after the civil wars. Their functions were at first extraordinary and temporary, but a few were retained as permanent state officials, and in course of time they came to be fairly generally distributed over the whole kingdom. The existing territorial divisions were not disturbed, each intendant being placed over a generalite, save in some cases where slight modifications were necessary for administrative purposes. In "their functions, however, there is another element worthy of notice. In the 13th and 14th centuries the monarchy had organized a species of inspection (chevauchee) over the provincial functionaries, which was performed by the maitres des requetes, and this the reform ordinances of the 16th century sought to revive. This inspectorate passed to the intendant, who became the resident local inspector and supervisor of all the other functionaries in his district; its connexion with the old chevauchee is plainly shown by the fact that the intendants were almost invariably selected from the maitres des requetes. The early intendants had naturally been largely concerned with the troops; eventually special military intendants (the only ones that exist in modern French law) were created, but the intendants des provinces retained certain military duties, notably those relating to the housing of the troops. The early intendants were called indifferently intendants de justice or intendants de finances, their full official title being intendants de justice, police et finances, et commissaires, departis dans les generalites du royaume pour l'execution des ordres de Sa Majeste. This title shows the wide range of their duties, the word " police" in this connexion connoting general administration. Not being officers of the king, but merely commissaries, they could always be recalled, and their powers were fixed by the commission they received from the king. As their functions became pre-eminently administrative the laws of the 17th and 18th centuries referred many questions to their decision, and, in this respect, their powers were determined by law. They became the direct general representatives of the king in each generalite, with authority over the other officials, whom they were empowered to censure, suspend or sometimes even replace. They were in constant touch with the king's council, with which they were connected by their original rights as maitres des requetes. In the first half of the 17th century they encountered some opposition from the governors of provinces, who had formerly been the direct political representatives of the crown, and also from the parliaments, which traditionally intervened in the administration, especially by means of amts de reglement (decisions, from which there was no appeal, regulating questions of procedure, civil law or custom). The intendants, however, were energetically supported, and so complete was their triumph that in the 18th century governors of provinces could not enter upon their duties without formal lettres de residence. The intendants had wide powers in the drawing by lot of the militia and in the royal corvees for the making and repair of the high roads, and were largely concerned with the administration of the taille, in which they effected useful reforms. They were the sole administrators of the principal direct and indirect imposts created in the second half of the 17th century and in the 18th century, and had full powers to settle disputes arising out of these taxes. Owing to the vast size of the districts allotted to the intendants (there were no more than thirty-two intendants in 1788), they often felt the need of assistants. As commissaries of the king, they could delegate their powers to sub-delegues, who were, however, not royal officials, but merely mandatories of the intendant. Decisions of the intendant could be tarried to the king's council, and those of the sub-delegue to the intendant. See Gabriel Hanotaux, Origines de l'institution des intendants des provinces (1884); D'Arbois de Jubainville, L'Administration des intendants d'apres les archives de l'Aube (188o) ; P. Ardascheff, Provintzalnaya administratsiya vo Frantsii ve poshednoyo porou starago poryadka: provintsialny Intendanty (St Petersburg, 1900-1906). (J. P. E.)
End of Article: INTENDANT (from Lat. intendens, pres. part. of intendere, to apply the mind to, to watch over; cf. " superintendent ")
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