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CHURCH IRELAND

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Originally appearing in Volume V14, Page 756 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHURCH IRELAND OF). The Presbyterian Church, whose adherents are found principally in Ulster and are the descerldants of Scotch settlers, was originally formed in the middle of the 17th century, and in 184o a reunion took place of the two divisions into which the Church had formerly separated. The governing body is the General Assembly, consisting of ministers and laymen. In 1906 there were 569 congregations, arranged under 36 presbyteries, with 647 ministers. The ministers are supported by a sustentation fund formed of voluntary contributions, the rents of seats and pews, and the proceeds of the commutation of the Regium Donum made by the commissioners under the Irish Church Act 1869. Two colleges are connected with the denomination, the General Assembly's College, Belfast, and the Magee College, Londonderry. In 1881 the faculty of the Belfast College and the theological professors of the Magee College were incorporated and constituted as a faculty with the power of granting degrees in divinity. The Methodist Church in Ireland was formed in 1878 by the Leinster. Munster. Ulster. '.onnaught. Roman Catholics 8o 8o 70 72 Read and write . Read only 7 5 I I 7 Neither read nor write . 13 15 19 21 Protestant Episcopalians 95 95 $1 93 Read and write Read only I 2 9 3 Neither read nor write . 4 3 Io 4 Presbyterians 97 96 88 95 Read and write . . . Read only 2 7 3 Neither read nor write . 2 2 5 2 Methodists 97 97 90 96 Read and write . . . Read only I I 5 2 Neither read nor write . 2 2 5 2 Others 91 91 90 94 Read and write . . . Read only 2 2 6 I Neither read nor write . 7 7 4 5 Total 83 8, 79 72 Read and write . . . Read only 6 5 9 7 Neither read nor write . I I 14• 12 21 Language.—The number of persons who speak Irish only continues to decrease. In 1881 they numbered 64,167; in 1891, 38,192; and in 1901, 20,953. If to those who spoke Irish only are added the persons who could speak both Irish and English, the total number who could speak Irish in 1901 was 641,142 or about 14 % of the population. The purely Irish-speaking population is to be found principally in the province of Connaught, where in 1901 they numbered over 12,000. The efforts of the Gaelic League, founded to encourage the study of Gaelic literature and the Irish language, produced results seen in the census returns for 1901, which showed that the pupils learning Irish had very largely in-creased as compared with 1891. The university of Dublin (q.v.), which is for practical purposes identical with Trinity College, Dublin, was incorporated in 1591. The government is in the hands of a board consisting un~_ of the provost and the senior fellows, assisted by . versifies a council in the election of professors and in the and regulation of studies. The council is composed of the colleges. provost (and, in his absence, the vice-provost) and elected members. There is also a senate, composed of the chancellor or vice-chancellor and all doctors and masters who have kept their names on the books of Trinity College. Religious tests were abolished in 1873, and the university is now open to all; but, as a matter of fact, the vast majority of the students, even since the abolition of tests, have always belonged to the Church of. Ireland, and the divinity school is purely Protestant. - In pursuance of the University Education (Ireland) Act 1879, the Queen's University in Ireland was superseded in 1882 by the Royal University of Ireland, it being provided that the graduates and students of the former should have similar rank in the new university. The government of the Royal University was vested in a senate consisting of a chancellor and senators, with power to grant all such degrees as could be conferred by any university in the United Kingdom, except in theology. Female students had exactly the same rights as male students. The university was simply an examining body, no residence in any college nor attendance at lectures being obligatory. All appointments to the senate and to fellowships were made on the principle that one half of those appointed should be Roman Catholics and the other half Protestants; and in such subjects as history and philosophy there were two courses of study pre-scribed, one for Roman Catholics and the other for Protestants. In 1905 the number who matriculated was 947, of whom 218 were females, and the number of students who passed the academic examinations was 2190. The university buildings are in Dublin and the fellows were mostly professors in the various colleges whose students were undergraduates. The three Queen's Colleges, at Belfast, Cork and Galway, were founded in 1849 and until 1882 formed the Queen's University. Their curriculum comprised all the usual courses of instruction, except theology. They were open to all denominations, but, as might be expected, the Belfast college (dissolved under the Irish Universities Act 1908; see below) was almost entirely Protestant. Its situation in a great industrial centre also made it the most important and flourishing of the three, its students numbering over 400. It possessed an excellent medical school, which was largely increased owing to private benefactions. The Irish Universities Act 1908 provided for the foundation of two new universities, having their seats respectively at Dublin and at Belfast. The Royal University of Ireland at Dublin and the Queen's College, Belfast, were dissolved. Pro-vision was made for a new college to be founded at Dublin. This college and the existing Queen's Colleges at Cork and Galway. were made constituent colleges of the new university at Dublin. Letters patent dated December 2, 1908, granted charters to these foundations under the titles of the National University of Ireland (Dublin), the Queen's University of Belfast and the University Colleges of Dublin, Cork and Galway. It was provided by the act that no test of religious belief should be imposed on any person as a condition of his holding any position in any foundation under the act. A body of commissioners was appointed for each of the new foundations to draw up statutes for its government; and for the purpose of dealing with any matter calling for joint action, a joint commission, half from each of the above commissions, was established. Regulations as to grants-in-aid were made by the act, with the stipulation that no sum from them should be devoted to the provision or maintenance of any building, or tutorial or other office, for religious purposes, though private benefaction for such purposes is not prohibited. Provisions were also made as to the transfer of graduates and students, so that they might occupy under the new regime positions equivalent to those which they occupied previously, in respect both of degrees and the keeping of terms. The commissioners were directed to work out schemes for the employment of officers already employed in the institutions affected by the new arrangements, and for the compensation of those whose employment could not be continued. A committee of the privy council in Ireland was appointed, to be styled the Irish Universities Committee. The Roman Catholic University College in Dublin may be described as a survival of the Roman Catholic University, a voluntary institution founded in 1854. In 1882 the Roman Catholic bishops placed the buildings belonging to the university under the control and direction of the archbishop of Dublin, who undertook to maintain a college in which education would be given according to the regulations of the Royal University. In 1883 the direction of the college was entrusted to the Jesuits. Although the college receives no grant from public funds, it has proved very successful and attracts a considerable number of students, the great majority of whom belong to the Church of Rome. The Royal College of Science was established in Dublin in 1867 under the authority of the Science and Art Department, London. Its object is to supply a complete course of instruction in science as applicable to the industrial arts. In 19oo the college was transferred from the Science and Art Department to the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction. Maynooth (q.v.) College was founded by an Irish act ofparliament in 1795 for the training of Roman Catholic students for the Irish priesthood. By an act of 1844 it was permanently endowed by a grant from the consolidated fund of over £26,000 a year. This grant was withdrawn by the Irish Church Act 1869, the college receiving as compensation a lump sum of over £372,000. The average number of students entering each year is about loo. There are two Presbyterian colleges, the General Assembly's College at Belfast, which is purely theological, and the Magee College, Londonderry, which has literary, scientific and theological courses. In 1881 the Assembly's College and the theological professors of Magee College were constituted a faculty with power to grant degrees in divinity. In addition to. the foregoing, seven Roman Catholic institutions were ranked as colleges in the census of 1901: All Hallows (Drum= condra), Holycross (Clonliffe), University College (Blackrock), St Patrick's (Carlow), St Kieran's (Kilkenny), St Stanislaus's (Tuna-more) and St Patrick's (Thurles). In 1901 the aggregate number of students was 715, of whom 209 were returned as under the faculty of divinity. As regards secondary schools a broad distinction can be drawn according to religion. The Roman Catholics have diocesan schools, schools under religious orders, monastic and convent schools. schools, and Christian Brothers' schools, which were attended, according to the census returns in 1901, by nearly 22,000 pupils, male and female. On the other hand are the endowed schools, which are almost exclusively Protestant in their government. Under this heading may be included royal and diocesan schools and schools upon the foundation of Erasmus Smith, and others privately endowed. In 1901 these schools numbered 55 and had an attendance of 2653 pupils. To these must be added various private establishments, which in the same year had over 8000 pupils, mainly Protestants. Dealing with these secondary schools as a whole the census of 1901 gives figures as to the number of pupils engaged upon what the commissioners call the " higher studies," i.e. studies involving instruction in at least one foreign language. In 1881 the number of such pupils was 18,657; in 1891, 23,484; and in 1901, 28,484, of whom 17,103 were males and 11,381 females, divided as follows among the different religions—Roman Catholics 18,248, Protestant Episcopalians 5669, Presbyterians 3011, Methodists 76o, and others 567. This increase in the number of pupils engaged in the higher studies is probably due to a large extent to the scheme for the encouragement of intermediate education which was established by act of parliament in 1879. A sum of £i,000,000, part of the Irish Church surplus, was assigned by that act for the promotion of the intermediate secular education of boys and girls in Ireland. The administration of this fund was entrusted to a board of commissioners, who were to apply its revenue for the purposes of the act (I) by carrying on a system of public examinations, (2) by awarding exhibitions, prizes and certificates to students, and (3) by the payment of results fees to the manager of schools. An amending act was passed in 1900 and the examinations are now held under rules made in virtue of that act. The number of students who presented themselves for examination in 1905 was 9677; the amount expended in exhibitions and prizes was £8536; and the grants to schools amounted to over £50,000. The. examinations were held at 259 centres in 99 different localities. Primary education in Ireland is under the general control of the commissioners of national education, who were first created in 1831 to take the place of the society for the education of the poor, and incorporated in 1845. In the year of their incorporation the schools under the control of the commissioners numbered 3426, with 432,844 pupils, and the amount of the parliamentary grants was £75,000; while in 1905 there were 8659 schools, with 737,752 pupils, and the grant was almost £1,400,000. Of the pupils attending in the latter year, 74% were Roman Catholics, 12 % Protestant Episcopalians and I1 % Presbyterians. The schools under the commissioners include national schools proper, model and workhouse schools and a number of monastic and convent schools. The Irish Education Act of 1892 provided that the parents of children of not less than 6 nor more than 14 years of, age should cause them to attend school in the absence of reasonable excuse on at least 1,50 days in the year in municipal boroughs and in towns or townships. under commissioners; and provisions were made for the partial or total abolition of fees i a specified circumstances, for a parliamentary school grant in lieu of abolished school fees, and for the augmentation of the salaries of the national teachers. There are 5 reformatory schools, 3 for boys and 2 for girls, and 68 industrial schools, 5 Protestant and 63 Roman Catholic. By the constituting act of 1899 the control of technical education in Ireland was handed over to the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction and now forms an important part Technical of its work. The annual sum of 155,000 was allocated instm, for the purpose, and this is augmented in various ways. don The department has devoted itself to (i) promoting in- struction in experimental science, drawing, manual instruction and domestic economy in day secondary schools, (2) supplying funds to country and urban authorities for the organization of schemes for technical instruction in non-agricultural subjects-these subjects embracing not only preparation for the highly organized industries but the teaching of such rural industries as basket-making, (3) the training of teachers by classes held at various centres, (4) the provision of central institutions, and (5) the awarding of scholarships. Revenue and Expenditure.-The early statistics as to revenue and expenditure in Ireland are very fragmentary and afford little possibility of comparison. During the first 15 years of Elizabeth's reign the expenses of Ireland, chiefly on account of wars, amounted, according to Sir James Ware's estimate, to over £490,000, while the revenue is put by some writers at £8000 per annum and by others at less. In the reign of James I. the customs increased from £So to over £9000; but although he obtained from various sources about £Io,000 a year and a considerable sum also accrued from the plantation of Ulster, the revenue is supposed to have fallen short of the expenditure by about £16,000 a year. During the reign of Charles I. the customs increased fourfold in value, but it was found necessary to raise £120,000 by yearly subsidies. According to the report of the committee appointed by Cromwell to investigate the financial condition of Ireland, the revenue in 1654 was £197,304 and the expenditure £630,814. At the Restoration the Irish parliament granted an hereditary revenue to the king, an excise for the maintenance of the army, a subsidy of tonnage and poundage for the navy, and a tax on hearths in lieu of feudal burdens. " Additional duties " were granted shortly after the Revolution. " Appropriate duties " were imposed at different periods; stamp duties were first granted in 1773, and the post office first became a source of revenue in 1783. In 1706 the hereditary revenue with additional duties produced over £394,000. Returns of the ordinary revenue were first presented to the Irish parliament in 1730. From special returns to parliament the following table shows net income and expenditure over a series of years up to 1868:- Year. Income. P Expenditure. 1731 £405,000 £407,000 1741 441,000 441,000 1761 571,000 773,000 1781 739,000 1,015,000 180o 3,017,757 6,615,00o 1834 3,814,000 3,439,800 1850 4,332,000 4,120,000 186o 7,851,000 6,331,000 1868 6,176,000 6,621,000 The amount of imperial revenue collected and expended in Ireland under various heads for the five years 1902-1906 appears in the following tables: Subtracting in each year the total expenditure from the estimated true revenue it would appear from the foregoing table that Ireland contributed to imperial services in the years under consideration the following sums: £2,570,000, £2,852,000, £2,200,500, £2,186,500 and £1,811,500. The financial relations between Great Britain and Ireland have long been a subject of controversy, and in 1894 a royal commission was appointed to consider them, which presented its report in 1896. The commissioners, though differing on several points, were practically agreed on the following five conclusions: (1) that Great Britain and Ireland must, for the purposes of a financial inquiry, be considered as separate entities; (2) that the Act of Union imposed upon Ireland a burden which, as events showed, she was unable to bear; (3) that the increase of taxation laid upon Ireland between 1853 and 186o was not justified by the then existing circumstances; (4) that identity of rates of taxation did not necessarily involve equality of burden; (5) that, while the actual tax revenue of Ireland was about one-eleventh of that of Great Britain, the relative taxable capacity of Ireland was very much smaller, and was not estimated by any of the commissioners as exceeding one-twentieth. This report furnished the material for much controversy, but little practical outcome; it was avowedly based on the consideration of Ireland as a separate country, and was therefore inconsistent with the principles of Unionism. The public debt of Ireland amounted to over £134,000,000 in 1817, in which year it was consolidated with the British national debt. Local Taxation.-The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 effected considerable changes in local finance. The fiscal duties of the grand jury were abolished, and the county council which took the place of the grand jury for both fiscal and administrative purposes was given three sources of revenue: (I) the agricultural grant, (2) the licence duties and other imperial grants, and (3) the poor rate. These may be considered separately. (I) It was provided that the Local Government Board should ascertain the amount of county cess and poor rate levied off agricultural land in Ireland during the year ending (as regards the poor rate) on the 29th of September, and (as regards the county cess) on the 21st of June 1897; and that half this amount, to be called the agricultural grant, should be paid annually without any variation from the original sum out of the consolidated fund to a local taxation account. The amount of the agricultural grant was ascertained to be over £727,000. Elaborate-provisions were also made in the act for fixing the proportion of the grant to which each county should be entitled, and the lord-lieutenant was empowered to pay half-yearly the proportion so ascertained to the county council. (2) Before the passing of the act grants were made from the imperial exchequer to the grand juries in aid of the maintenance of lunatics and to boards of guardians for medical and educational purposes and for salaries under the Public Health (Ireland) Act. In 1897 these grants amounted to over £236,000. Under the Local Government Act they ceased, and in lieu thereof it was provided that there should be annually paid out of the consolidated fund to the local taxation account a sum equal to the duties collected in Ireland on certain Revenue. Estate, &c. Property Miscel- Total Estimated Year. Customs. Excise. Duties and and Income Post Office. True Stamps. Tax. laneous. Revenue. Revenue. 1902 £2,244,000 £5,822,000 £x,072,000 £1,143,000 £923,000 £149,000 £11,353,000 £9,784, 1903 2,717,000 6,011,000 922,000 1,244,000 960,000 148,500 12,002,500 10,205,000 1904 2,545,000 5,904,000 x,033,000 1,038,000 980,000 146,500 11,646,500 9,748,500 1905 2,575,000 5,584,000 1,016,000 1,013,000 1,002,000 150,500 11,340,500 9,753,500 1906 2,524,000 5,506,000 890,000 983,000 1,043,000 150,000 11,096,000 9,447,000 Expenditure. Local Taxation Accounts. Total Estimated Year. Consolidated Voted. Local Collection Total Fund. Taxation Exchequer Civil of Taxes. Post Office. Expended. True Revenue. Revenue. Charges. Revenue. 1902 £169,000 £4,271,000 £389, £1,055,000 £5,884,000 £243,000 £1,087,000 £7,214,000 £9,784,000 1903 168,500 4,357,500 383,000 1,058,000 5,967,000 246,000 1,140,000 7,353,000 10,205,000 1904 170,000 4,569,000 376,000 1,059,000 6,174,000 248,000 1,126,000 7,548,000 9,784,500 1905 166,000 4,547,000 374,000 1,059,000 6,146,000 249,000 1,172,000 7,567,000 9,753,500 1906 164,000 4,582,500 385,000 1,059,000 6,191,500 245,000 1,199,000 7,635,500 9,447,000 specified local taxation licences. In addition, it was enacted that a fixed sum of £79,000 should be forthcoming annually from the consolidated fund. (3) The county cess was abolished, and the county councils were empowered to levy a single rate for the rural districts and unions, called by the name of poor rate, for all the purposes of the act. This rate is made upon the occupier and not upon the landlord, and the occupier is not entitled, save in a few specified cases, to deduct any of the rate from his rent. For the year ending the 31st of March 1905, the total receipts of the Irish county councils, exclusive of the county boroughs, were £2,964,298 and their total expenditure was 2,959,961, the two chief items of expenditure being " Union Charges " £1,002,620 and " Road Expenditure " £779,174. During the same period the total receipts from local taxation in Ireland amounted to £J 013,303, and the amount granted from imperial sources in aid of local taxation was £1,781,143. Loans.—The total amount issued on loan, exclusive of closed sources, by the Commissioners of Public Works, up to the 31st of March 1906, was £26,946,393, of which £15,221,913 had been repaid to the exchequer as principal and £9,011,506 as interest, and £I,6o9,694 had been remitted. Of the sums advanced, about £5,500,000 was under the Improvement of Lands Acts, nearly £3,500,000 under the Public Health Acts, over £3,000,000 for lunatic asylums, and over £3,000,000 under the various Labourers Acts. Banking.—The Bank of Ireland was established in Dublin in 1783 with a capital of £600,000, which was afterwards enlarged at various times, and on the renewal of its charter in 1821 it was increased to £3,000,000. It holds in Ireland a position corresponding to the Bank of England in England. There are eight other joint-stock banks in Ireland. Including the Bank of Ireland, their sub-scribed capital amounts to £26,349,230 and their paid-up capital to L7,309,230. The authorized note circulation is £6,354,494 and the actual note circulation in June 1906 was £6,310,243, two of the banks not being banks of issue. The deposits in the point-stock banks amounted in 188o to £29,350,000; in 1890 to £33,061,000; in 1900 to £40,287,000; and in 1906 to £45,842,000. The deposits in the Post Office Savings Banks rose from £1,481,000 in 1880 to £10,459,000 in 1906, and the deposits in Trustee Savings Banks from £2,100,165 in 188o to £2,488,740 in 1905. National Wealth.--To arrive at any estimate of the national wealth is exceptionally difficult in the case of Ireland, since the largest part of its wealth is derived from agriculture, and many important factors, such as the amount of capital invested in the linen and other industries, cannot be included, owing to their uncertainty. The following figures for 1905-1906 may, however, be given: valuation of lands, houses, &c., £15,466,00o; value of principal crops, £35.362,000; value of cattle, &c., £81,508,000; paid-up capital and reserve funds of joint-stock banks, £11,300,000; deposits in joint-stock and savings banks, £58,791,000; investments in government stock, transferable at Bank of Ireland, £36,952,000; paid-up capital and debentures of railway companies, ££338,405,000; paid-up capital of tramway companies, £2,074,000. In 1906 the net value of property assessed to estate duty, &c., in Ireland was £16,o16,000 as compared with £306,673,000 in England and £38,451,000 in Scotland; and in 1905 the net produce of the income tax in Ireland was {983,000, as compared with £27,423,000 in England and £2,888,000 in Scotland. Manufactures and Commerce: Discourse on the Woollen Manufacture of Ireland (1698); An Inquiry into the State and Progress of the Linen Manufacture in Ireland (Dublin, 1757) ; G. E. Howard, Treatise on the Revenue of Ireland (1776); John Hely Hutchinson, Commercial Restraints of Ireland (1779); Lord Sheffield, Observations on the Manufactures, Trade and Present State of Ireland (1785); R. B. Clarendon, A Sketch of the Revenue and Finances of Ireland (1791) ; the annual reports of the Flax Supply Association and other local bodies, published at Belfast; reports by the Department of Agriculture on Irish imports and exports (these are a new feature and contain much valuable information). Miscellaneous: Sir William Petty, Political Anatomy of Ireland (1691) ; Arthur Dobbs, Essay on the Trade of Ireland (1729) ; Abstract of the Number of Protestant and Popish Families in Ireland (1726); Arthur Young, Tour in Ireland (178o); T. Newenham, View of the Circumstances of Ireland (1809), and Inquiry into the Population of Ireland (1805); Cesar Moreau, Past and Present State of Ireland 1827); J. M. Murphy, Ireland, Industrial, Political and Social (187o); R. Dennis, Industrial Ireland (1887,; Grimshaw, Facts and Figures about Ireland (1893); Report of the Recess Cam-mittee (1896, published in Dublin) ; Report of the Financial Relations Commission (1897); Sir H. Plunkett, Ireland in the New Century (London, 1905) ; Filson Young, Ireland at the Cross-Roads'(London, 1904) ; Thom's Almanac, published annually in Dublin, gives a very useful summary of statistics and other information. (W. H. Po.)
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