Online Encyclopedia

IVAN II

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 88 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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IVAN II. (1326–1359), grand duke of Vladimir, a younger son reigning grand duke instead of reverting, as hitherto, to the of Ivan Kalita, was born in 1326. In 1353 he succeeded his `princes' heirs, put an end once for all to these semi-independent elder brother Simeon as grand duke, despite the competition princelets. The further extension of the Muscovite dominion of Prince Constantine of Suzdal, the Khan Hanibek preferring was facilitated by the death of Casimir IV. in 1492, when Poland to bestow the yarluik, or letter of investiture, upon Ivan rather and Lithuania once more parted company. The throne of than upon Constantine. At first the principalities of Suzdal, Lithuania was now occupied by Casimir's son Alexander, a weak Ryazan and the republic of Novgorod refused to recognize him j and lethargic prince so incapable of defending his posses-as grand duke, and waged war with him till 1354. The authority sions against the persistent attacks of the Muscovites that he of the grand duchy sensibly diminished during the reign of attempted to save them by a matrimonial compact, and wedded Ivan II. The surrounding principalities paid but little attention Helena, Ivan's daughter. But the clear determination of to Moscow, and Ivan, " a meek, gentle and merciful prince," was ruled to a great extent by the luisyatsky, or chiliarch, Alexis Khvost, and, after his murder by the jealous boyars in 1357, by in-law. The Lithuanians were routed at Vedrosha (July 14, Bishop Alexis. He died in 1359. Like most of his predecessors, 1500), and in 1503 Alexander was glad to purchase peace by Ivan, by his last will, divided his dominions among his children. 1 ceding to Ivan Chernigov, Starodub, Novgorod-Syeversk and See Dmitry Ilovaisly, History of Russia (Rus.), vol. ii. (Moscow, sixteen other towns. 1876-1894). I It was in the reign of Ivan III. that Muscovy rejected the
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