See also:born in Dundee in 1765 . In 1779 he entered the university of St Andrews, distinguishing himself especially in
See also:mathematics . He then studied
See also:theology; but, after two sessions at St Andrews and one at
See also:Edinburgh, he abandoned all idea of the
See also:church, and in 1786 he became an assistant-teacher of mathematics and natural philosoghy in a newly established academy at Dundee . Three years later he became partner in and manager of a
See also:company at Douglastown in
See also:Forfarshire, still, however, prosecuting in moments of leisure his favourite studies . He was essentially a self-trained mathematician, and was not only deeply versed in
See also:ancient and
See also:geometry, but also had a full knowledge of the
See also:analytical methods and discoveries of the
See also:continental mathematicians . His earliest memoir, dealing with an analytical expression for the rectification of the ellipse, is published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1796); and this and his later papers on " Cubic Equations " (1799) and "
See also:Kepler's Problem " (1802) evince
See also:great facility in the handling of algebraic formulae . In 1804 after the dissolution of the flax-spinning company of which he was manager, he obtained one of the mathematical chairs in the Royal Military
See also:College at
See also:Marlow (afterwards removed to
See also:Sandhurst); and till the
See also:year 1816, when failing
See also:health obliged him to resign, he discharged his professional duties with remarkable success . During this
See also:period he published in the Philosophical Transactions several important
See also:memoirs, which earned for him the
See also:Copley medal in 1814 and ensured his election as a
See also:Fellow of the Royal Society in 1815 . Of
See also:special importance in the
See also:history of attractions is the first of these earlier memoirs (Phil . Trans., 1809), in which the problem of the attraction of a homogeneous
See also:ellipsoid upon an
See also:external point is reduced to the simpler case of the attraction of another but related ellipsoid upon a corresponding point interior to it . This theorem is known as Ivory's theorem . His later papers in the Philosophical Transactions treat of astronomical refractions, of planetary perturbations, of equilibrium of fluid masses, &c .
For his investigations in the first named of these he received a royal medal in 1826 and again in 1839 . In 1831, on the recommendation of
See also:Lord Brougham,
See also:William IV. granted him a pension of £300 per annum, and conferred on him the Hanoverian Guelphic
See also:order of
See also:knighthood . Besides being directly connected with the chief scientific
See also:societies of his own
See also:country, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Royal Irish Academy, &c., he was corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Sciences both of
See also:Paris and Berlin, and of the Royal Society of
See also:Gottingen . He died at
See also:London on the 21st of
See also:September 1842 . A
See also:list of his
See also:works is given in the
See also:Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society of London .
IVORY COAST (Cote d'Ivoire)
IVREA (anc. Eporedia)
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