See also:JAMES, the son of Zebedee . He was among the first who were called to be Christ's immediate followers (Mark i . 19 seq.; Matt. iv . 21 seq., and perhaps Luke v . 1o) , and afterwards obtained an honoured place in the apostolic
See also:band, his name twice occupying the second place after
See also:Peter's in the lists (Mark iii . 17; Acts i . 13), while on at least three notable occasions he was, along with Peter and his
See also:John, specially chosen by Jesus to be with him (Mark v . 37; Matt. xvii. i,
See also:xxvi . 37) . This same prominence may have contributed partly to the title " Boanerges " or " sons of
See also:thunder " which, according to Mark iii .
17, Jesus himself gave to the two
See also:brothers . But its most natural
See also:interpretation is to be found in the impetuous disposition which would have called down
See also:fire from
See also:heaven on the offending Samaritan villagers (Luke ix . 54), and afterwards found expression, though in a different way, in the ambitious
See also:request to occupy the places of
See also:honour in Christ's
See also:kingdom (Mark x . 35 seq.) . James is included among those who after the ascension waited at Jerusalem (Acts i . 13) for the descent of the
See also:Holy Ghost on the
See also:day of
See also:Pentecost . And though on this occasion only his name is mentioned, he must have been a zealous and prominent member of the Christian community, to
See also:judge from the fact that when a victim had to be chosen from among the apostles, who should be sacrificed to the animosity of the Jews, it was on James that the
See also:blow fell first . The brief
See also:notice is given in Acts xii . 1, 2 .
See also:Eusebius (Hist . Eccl. ii . 9) has preserved for us from
See also:Clement of Alexandria the additional information that the accuser of the apostle " beholding his confession and moved thereby, confessed that he too was a Christian .
So they were both led away toexecution together; and on the road the accuser asked James for forgiveness . Gazing on him for a little while, he said, ` Peace be with thee,' and kissed him . And then both were beheaded together." The later, and wholly untrustworthy, legends which tell of the apostle's preaching in Spain, and of the
See also:translation of his
See also:body to
See also:Santiago de Compostela, are to be found in the Acta Sanctorum (
See also:July 25), vi . 1—124; see also Mrs
See also:Jameson's Sacred and Legendary
See also:Art, i . 230-241 . 2 . JAMES, the son of Alphaeus . He also was one of the apostles, and is mentioned in all the four lists (Matt. x . 3; Mark iii . 18; Luke vi . 15; Acts i . 13) by this name .
We know nothing further regarding him, unless we believe him to be the same as James " the little." 3 . JAMES, the little . He is described as the son of aMary (Matt.
See also:xxvii . 56; Mark xv . 40), who was in all probability the wife of Clopas (John xix . 25) . And on the ground that Clopas is another
See also:form of the name Alphaeus, this James has been ,thought by some to be the same as 2 . But the evidence of the
See also:Syriac versions, which render Alphaeus by Chalphai, while Clopas is simply transliterated Kleopha, makes it extremely improbable that the two names are to be identified . And as we have no better ground for finding in Clopas the Cleopas of Luke
See also:xxiv . 18, we must be content to admit that James the little is again an almost wholly unknown
See also:personality, and has no connexion with any of the other Jameses mentioned in the New Testament . 4 . JAMES, the
See also:father of Judas .
There can be no doubt that in the mention of " Judas of James " in Luke vi . 16 the ellipsis should be supplied by " the son " and not as in the A.V. by " the brother " (cf . Luke iii . 1, vi . 14; Acts xii . 2, where the word 1s&X06s is inserted) . This Judas, known as Thaddaeus by
See also:Matthew and Mark, afterwards became one of the apostles, and is expressly distinguished by St John from the traitor as " not Iscariot " (John xiv . 22) . 5 . JAMES, the
See also:Lord's brother . In Matt. xiii . 55 and Mark Vi .
3 we read of a certain James as, along with Joses and Judas and
See also:Simon, a " brother " of the Lord . The exact nature of the relationship there implied has been the subject of much discussion .
See also:Jerome's view (de vir.
See also:ill . 2), that the " brothers " were in reality
See also:cousins, " sons of Mary the
See also:sister of the Lord's
See also:mother," rests on too many unproved assumptions to be entitled to much
See also:weight, and may be said to have been finally disposed of by
See also:Bishop Lightfoot in his
See also:essay on " The Brothers of the Lord " (
See also:Galatians, pp . 252 sqq.,
See also:Dissertations on the Apostolic Age, pp. r sqq.) . Even however if we understand the word " brethren " in its natural sense, it may be applied either to the sons of
See also:Joseph by a former wife, in which case they would be the step-brothers of Jesus, or to sons
See also:born to Joseph and Mary after the
See also:birth of Jesus . The former of these views, generally known as the Epiphanian view from its most zealous
See also:advocate in the 4th century, can claim for its support the preponderating
See also:voice of tradition (see the catena of references given by Lightfoot, loc. cit., who himself inclines to this view) . On the other
See also:hand the Helvidian theory as propounded by Helvidius, and apparently accepted by
See also:Tertullian (cf. adv . Marc. iv . 29), which makes James a brother of the Lord, as truly as Mary was his mother, undoubtedly seems more in keeping with the
See also:direct statements of the Gospels, and also with the after
See also:history of the brothers in the
See also:Church (see W . Patrick, James the Brother of the Lord, 1906, p . 5) .
In any case, whatever the exact nature of James's antecedents, there can be no question as to the important place which he occupied in theearly Church . Converted to a full belief in the living Lord, perhaps through the
See also:revelation that was granted to him (r
See also:Cor. xv . 7), he became the recognized
See also:head of the Church at Jerusalem (Acts xii . 17, xv . 13, xxi . 18), and is called by St Paul (Gal. ii . 9), along with Peter and John, a "pillar" of the Christian community . He was traditionally the author of the
See also:epistle in the New Testament which bears his name (see JAMES, EPISTLE OF) . From the New Testament we learn no more of the history of James the Lord's brother, but Eusebius (Hist . Eccl. ii . 23) has preserved for us from Hegesippus the earliest ecclesiastical traditions concerning him . By that authority he is described as having been a
See also:Nazarite, and on account of his eminent righteousness called " Just " and " Oblias." So
See also:great was his influence with the
See also:people that he was appealed to by the
See also:scribes and
See also:Pharisees for a true and (as they hoped) unfavourable
See also:judgment about the Messiahship of Christ .
Placed, to give the greater publicity to his words, on a
See also:pinnacle of the
See also:temple, he, when solemnly appealed to, made confession of his faith, and was at once thrown down and murdered . This happened immediately before the
See also:siege .
See also:Josephus (Antiq. xx . 9, 1) tells that it was by
See also:order of Ananus the high
See also:priest, in the
See also:interval between the
See also:death of Festus and the arrival of his successor Albinus, that James was put to death; and his narrative gives the idea of some sort of judicial examination, for he says that along with some others James was brought before an
See also:assembly of
See also:judges, by whom they were condemned and deliyered to be stoned . Josephus is also cited by Eusebius (Hist . Eccl. ii . 23) to the effect that the miseries of the siege were due to divine vengeance for the
See also:murder of James . Later writers describe James as an, hriaimros (Clem . Al. apud Eus . Hist . Ecc. ii . I) and even as an E7r Lo Ko ro E7rLQK07rwV (Clem .
Hem., ad init.) . According to Eusebius (Hist . Feel. vii . 19) his episcopal
See also:chair was still shown at Jerusalem at the
See also:time when Eusebius wrote .
JAMES (JAMES FRANCIS EDWARD STUART) (1688-1766)
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.