Online Encyclopedia

JAUER

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 281 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JAUER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, 13 M. by rail S. of Leignitz, on the Wtithende Neisse. Pop. (1900), 13,024. St Martin's (Roman Catholic) church dates from 1267-1290, and the Evangelical church from 1655. A new town-hall was erected in 1895-1898. Jauer manufactures leather, carpets, cigars, carriages and gloves, and is specially famous for its sausages. The town was first mentioned in 1242, and was formerly the capital of a principality em-bracing about 1200 sq. m., now occupied by the circles of Jauer, Bunzlau, Loweberg, Hirschberg and Schonau. From 1392 to 1741 it belonged to the kings of Bohemia, being taken from Maria Theresa by Frederick the Great. Jauer was formerly the prosperous seat of the Silesian linen trade, but the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, in the course of which it was burned down three times, permanently injured this. See Schonaich, Die alte Furstentumshauptstadt Jauer (Jauer, 1903). JAUHART (ABU NASR ISMAeIL IBN 1;IAMMAD UL-JAUHARI) (d. 1002 or 1010), Arabian lexicographer, was born at Farab on the borders of Turkestan. He studied language in Farab and Bagdad, and later among the Arabs of the desert. He then settled in Damghan and afterwards at Nishapur, where he died by a fall from the roof of a house. His great work is the Kitab us-Sabah fil-Lugha, an Arabic dictionary, in which the words are arranged alphabetically according to the last letter of the root. He himself had only partially finished the last recension, but the work was completed by his pupil, Abu Ishaq Ibrahirn ibn Salih ul-Warraq. An edition was begun by E. Scheidius with a Latin translation, but one part only appeared at Harderwijk (1776). The whole has been published at Tebriz (1854) and at Cairo (1865), and many abridgments and Persian translations have appeared; cf. C. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur (Weimar, 1898), i. 128 seq. (G. W. T.)
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MARQUIS DE ARNAIL FRANCOIS JAUCOURT (1757-1852)
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