JAVA .) Inhabitants.-Themajority of the native inhabitants of the
See also:Archipelago belong to two races, the
See also:Malays and the Melanesians (
See also:Papuans) . As regards the
See also:present racial distribution, the view accepted by many anthropologists, following A . H .
See also:Keane, is that the Negritos, still found in the Philippines, are the true
See also:aborigines of Indo-
See also:China and western Malaysia, while the Melanesians, probably their kinsmen, were the earliest occupants of eastern Malaysia and western Polynesia . At some date long anterior to
See also:history it is supposed that Indo-China was occupied first by a
See also:fair Caucasian
See also:people and later by a yellow Mongolian
See also:race . From these two have come all the peoples-other than Negrito or Papuan-found to-
See also:day from the Malay Peninsula to the farthest islands of Polynesia . The Malay Archipelago was thus first invaded by the Caucasians, who eventually passed eastward and are to-day represented in the Malay Archipelago only by the
See also:Mentawi islanders . They were followed by an immigration of Mongol-Caucasic peoples with a preponderance of Caucasic
See also:blood-the Indonesians of some, the pre-Malays of other writers-who are to-day represented in the archipelago by such peoples as the
See also:Dyaks of
See also:Borneo and the
See also:Battas of
See also:Sumatra . At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in
See also:time becoming the dominant race . A
See also:strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and
See also:Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between
See also:Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the'
See also:form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts . Chinese have been established in the archipelago from a very early date: the first Dutch invaders found them settled at Jacatra; and many of them, as, for instance, the colony of
See also:Ternate, have taken so kindly to their new home that they have acquired Malay to the disuse of their native
See also:tongue . Chinese tombs are among the
See also:objects that strike the traveller's
See also:attention at
See also:Amboyna and other
See also:ancient settlements .
There is a vast
See also:field for philological explorations in the archipelago . Of, the
See also:great number of distinct
See also:languages known to exist, few have been studied scientifically . The most widely distributed is the Malay, which has not only been diffused by the Malays themselves throughout the
See also:coast regions of the various islands, but, owing partly to the readiness with which it can be learned, has become the
See also:medium between the Europeans and the natives . The most cultivated of the, native tongues is the Javanese, and it is spoken by a greater number of people than any of the others . To it Sundanese stands in the relation that Low German holds to High German, and the Madurese in the relation of a strongly individualized dialect . Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the
See also:Batta (with its dialect the Toba), the Dyak and the Macassarese . Alfurese, a vague
See also:term meaning in the mouths of the natives little else than non-
See also:Mahommedan, has been more particularly applied by Dutch philologists to the native speech of certain tribes in
See also:Celebes . The commercial activity of the Buginese causes their language to be fairly widely spoken-little, however, by Europeans .
See also:Political Division.-Politically the whole of the archipelago, except
See also:North Borneo, &c . (see BORNEO),
See also:part of Timor (Portuguese), New
See also:Guinea east of the 141st meridian (British and German), and the Philippine Islands, belongs to the Nether-lands . The Philippine Islands which had been for several centuries a
See also:Spanish possession, passed in 1898 by
See also:conquest to the
See also:United States of
See also:America . For these several political units see the
See also:separate articles; a general view, however, is here given of the
See also:government, economic conditions, &c., of the Dutch possessions, which the Dutch
See also:call Nederlandsch-Indie .
JEAN LEON JAURES (1859- )
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