See also:book of the Old Testament . This
See also:letter purports to have been written by
See also:Jeremiah to the exiles who were already in
See also:Babylon or on the way thither . The author was a Hellenistic
See also:Jew, and not improbably a Jew of Alexandria . His
See also:work, which shows little
See also:literary skill, was written with a serious
See also:practical purpose . He veiled his fierce attack on the idol gods of
See also:Egypt by holding up to derision the
See also:idolatry of Babylon . The fact that Jeremiah (
See also:xxix. i sqq.) was known to have written a letter of this nature naturally suggested to a Hellenist, possibly of the 1st century B.C. or earlier, the idea of a second epistolary undertaking, and other passages of Jeremiah's prophecy (x . I-12; xxix . 4-23) may have determined also its general character and contents . The writer warned the exiles that they were to remain in captivity for seven generations; that they would there see the worship paid to idols, from all participation in which they were to hold aloof; for that idols were nothing save the work of men's hands, without the
See also:powers of speech,
See also:hearing or self-preservation . They could not bless their worshippers even in the smallest concerns of
See also:life; they were indifferent to moral qualities, and were of less value than the commonest
See also:objects, and finally, " with rare irony, the author compared an idol to a scarecrow (v . 70), impotent to protect, but deluding to the
See also:imagination " (
See also:MARSHALL) . The date of the
See also:epistle is uncertain .
It is believed by some scholars to be referred to in 2Mace. ii . 2, which says that Jeremiah charged the exiles " not to forget the statutes of the
See also:Lord, neither
See also:Ili . 59-64a, however, is a specimen of imaginative " Midrashic "
See also:history . See
See also:Giesebrecht's monograph.to be led astray in their minds when they saw images of gold and
See also:silver and the adornment thereof." But the reference is disputed by Fritzsche,
See also:Gifford, Shiirer and others . The epistle was included in the Greek
See also:canon . There was no question of its canonicity till the
See also:time of
See also:Jerome, who termed it a pseudepigraph . See Fritzsche, Handb. zu den Apok., 1851; Gifford, in
See also:Speaker's Apoc. ii . 286-303; Marshall, in Hastings' Dict . Bible, ii . 578-579 . (R . H .
C.) JERtZ DE LA FRONTERA (formerly XERES), a
See also:town of
See also:southern Spain, in the province of Cadiz, near the right
See also:bank of the
See also:river Guadalete, and on the Seville-Cadiz railway, about 7 M. from the
See also:coast . Pop . (1900), 63,473 . Jerez is built in the midst of an undulating plain of
See also:great fertility . Its whitewashed houses, clean, broad streets, and squares planted with trees extend far beyond the limits formerly enclosed by the Moorish walls, almost entirely demolished . The
See also:principal buildings are the 15th-century
See also:church of
See also:Miguel, the 17th-century collegiate church with its lofty
See also:bell-tower, the 16th-century town-
See also:hall, superseded, for official purposes, by a
See also:modern edifice, the bull-
See also:ring, and many hospitals, charitable institutions and
See also:schools, including
See also:academies of
See also:medicine and commerce . But the most characteristic features of Jerez are the huge bodegas, or
See also:wine-lodges, for the manufacture and storage of
See also:sherry, and the vineyards, covering more than 150,000 acres, which surround it on all sides . The town is an important market for
See also:grain, fruit and livestock, but its
See also:trade is in wine . Sherry is also produced in other districts, but takes its name, formerly written in
See also:English as sherris or xeres, from Jerez . The demand for sherry diminished very greatly during the last quarter of the 19th century, especially in England, which had been the chief consumer . In 1872 the sherry shipped from Cadiz to Great Britain alone was valued at 2,500,000; in 1902 the
See also:total export hardly amounted to one-fifth of this sum . The wine trade, however, still brings a considerable profit, and few towns of southern Spain display greater commercial activity than Jerez .
In the earlier
See also:part of the 18th century the neighbourhood suffered severely from yellow fever; but it was rendered comparatively healthy when in 1869 an aqueduct was opened to supply pure
See also:water . Strikes and revolutionary disturbances have frequently retarded business in more
See also:recent years . Jerez has been variously identified with the
See also:Roman Municipium Seriense; with Asido, perhaps the
See also:original of the Moorish Sherish; and with Hasta Regia, a name which may survive in the designation of La Mesa de Asta, a neighbouring
See also:hill . Jerez was taken from the Moors by
See also:Ferdinand III. of
See also:Castile (1217-1252); but it was twice recaptured before
See also:Alphonso X. finally occupied it in 1264 . Towards the close of the 14th century it received the title de la Frontera, i.e . " of the frontier,"
See also:common to several towns on the Moorish border .
JEREZ DE LOS CABALLEROS
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