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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V02, Page 851 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHNMURRAY, 2nd marquess and 1st duke of Atholl (166o–1724) , was born on the 24th of February 166o, and was styled during his father's lifetime Lord Murray, till 1696, when he was created earl of Tullibardine. He was a supporter of William and the Revolution in 1688, taking the oaths in September 1689, but was unable to prevent the majority of his clan, during his father's absence, from joining Dundee under the command of his brother James. In 1693 as one of the commissioners he showed great energy in the examination into the massacre of Glencoe and in bringing the crime home to its authors. In 1694 he obtained a regiment, in 1695 was made sheriff of Perth, in 1696 secretary of state, and from 1696 to 1698 was high commissioner. In the latter year, however, he threw up office and went into opposition. At the accession of Anne he was made a privy councillor, and in 1703 lord privy seal for Scotland. The same year he succeeded his father as 2nd marquess of Atholl, and on the 3oth of June he was created duke of Atholl, marquess of Tullibardine, earl of Strathtay and Strathardle, Viscount Balquhidder, Glenalmond and Glenlyon, and Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask. In 1704 he was made a knight of the Thistle. In 1703–1704 an unsuccessful attempt was made by Simon, Lord Lovat, who used the duke of Queensberry as a tool, to implicate him in a Jacobite plot against Queen Anne; but the intrigue was disclosed by Robert Ferguson, and Atholl sent a memorial to the queen on the subject, which resulted in Queensberry's downfall. But he fell nevertheless into suspicion, and was deprived of office in October 1705, subsequently becoming a strong antagonist of the government, and of the Hanoverian succession. He vehemently opposed the Union during the years 1705–1707, and entered into a project for resisting by force and for holding Stirling Castle with the aid of the Cameronians, but nevertheless did not refuse a compensation of £1000. According to Lockhart, he could raise 6000 of the best men in the kingdom for the Jacobites. On the occasion, however, of the invasion of 1708 he took no part, on the score of illness, and was placed under arrest at Blair Castle. On the downfall of the Whigs and the advent of the Tories to power, Atholl returned to office, was chosen a representative peer in the Lords in 1710 and 1713, in 1712 was an extraordinary lord of session, from 1713 to 1714 was once more keeper of the privy seal, and from 1712 to 1714 was high commissioner. On the accession of George I. he was again dismissed from office, but at the rebellion of 1715, while three of his sons joined the Jacobites, he remained faithful to the government, whom he assisted in various ways, on the 4th of June 1717 apprehending Robert Macgregor (Rob Roy), who, however, succeeded in escaping. He died on the 14th of November 1724. He married (1) Catherine, daughter of William Douglas, 3rd duke of Hamilton, by whom, besides one daughter, he had six sons, of whom John was killed at Malplaquet in 1709, William was marquess of Tullibardine, and James succeeded his father as 2nd duke on account of the share taken by his elder brother in the rebellion; and (2) Mary, daughter of William, Lord Ross, by whom he had three sons and several daughters. The Atholl Chronicles have been privately printed by the 7th duke of Athol] (b. 184o). See also S. Cowan, Three Celtic Earldoms (1909).
End of Article: JOHNMURRAY
JOHN, or HAYS (1513–1571)

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