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JOHN DE SEGRAVE

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 584 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN DE SEGRAVE, 2nd Baron Segrave (c. 1256—1325), was one of those who supported the earls of Norfolk and of Hereford in their refusal to serve Edward I. in Gascony in 1297. He took part in campaigns in Scotland, and like his brother Nicholas he signed the letter which was sent in 1301 by the barons at Lincoln to Pope Boniface VIII. repudiating the papal claim to the suzerainty of Scotland. Having been appointed warden of Scotland, Segrave was defeated at Roslin in February 1303; after the capture of Stirling he was again left in charge of this country and was responsible for the capture of Sir William Wallace, whom he conveyed to London. He was also warden of Scotland under Edward II., and was taken prisoner at Bannockburn, being quickly released, and dying whilst on active service in Aquitaine. His grandson and heir, another John (c. 1295—1353), married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, a son of Edward I. Their daughter Elizabeth married John de Mowbray, and the barony of Segrave was united with, and shared the fate of, that of Mowbray (q.v.). SEGUIER 583 Other celebrated members of the Segrave family are Sir Hugh Segrave (d. c. 1386), treasurer of England from 1381 until his death, and Stephen de Segrave (d. 1333), a noted pluralist, who was arch-bishop of Armagh from 1323 until his death on the 27th of October 1333. S$GUIER, PIERRE (1588—1672), chancellor of France, was born in Paris on the 28th of May 1588, of a famous legal family originating in Quercy. His grandfather, Pierre Seguier (1504—158o), was president d mortier in the parlement of Paris from 1554 to 1576, and the chancellor's father, Jean Seguier, a seigneur d'Autry, was civil lieutenant of Paris at the time of his death in 1596. Pierre was brought up by his uncle, Antoine Seguier, president d mortier in the parlement, and became master of requests in 162o. From 1621 to 1624 he was intendant of Guienne, where he became closely allied with the duc d'Epernon. In 1624 he succeeded to his uncle's charge in the parlement, which he filled for nine years. In this capacity he showed great independence with regard to the royal authority; but when in 1633 he became keeper of the seals under Richelieu, he proceeded to bully and humiliate the parlement in his turn. He became allied with the cardinal's family by the marriage of his daughter Marie with Richelieu's nephew, Cesar du Cambout, marquis de Coislin,l and in December 1635 he became chancellor of France. In 1637 Seguier was sent to examine the papers of the queen, Anne of Austria, at Val de Grace. According to Anquetil, the chancellor saved her by warning her of the projected inquisition. In 1639 Seguier was sent to punish the Normans for the insurrection of the Nu-Pieds, the military chief of the expedition, Gassion, being placed under his orders. He put down pillage with a strong hand, and was sufficiently disinterested to refuse a gift of confiscated Norman lands. He was the submissive tool of Richelieu in the prosecutions of Cinq-Mars and Francois Auguste de Thou in 1642. His authority survived the changes following on the successive deaths of Richelieu and Louis XIIL, and he was the faithful servant of Anne of Austria and of Mazarin. His resolute attitude towards the parlement of Paris made the chancellor one of the chief objects of the hatred of the Frondeurs. On the 25th of August 1648, Seguier was sent to the parlement to regulate its proceedings. On the way he was assailed by rioters on the Pont-Neuf, and sought refuge in the house of Louis Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes. In the course of the concessions made to the Fronde in 165o, Seguier was dismissed from his office of keeper of the seals. He spent part of his retirement at Rosny, with his second daughter Charlotte and her husband, the duke of Sully.' He was recalled in April 1651, but six months later, on the king's attaining his majority, Seguier was again disgraced, and the seals were given to President Mathieu Mole, who held them with a short interval till his death in 1656, when they were returned to Seguier. Seguier lived for some time in extreme retirement in Paris, devoting himself to the affairs of the academy. When Paris was occupied by the princes in 1652, he was for a short time a member of their council, but he joined the king at Pontoise in August, and became president of the royal council. After Mazarin's death in 1661 Seguier retained but a shadow of his former authority. He showed a great violence in his conduct of the case against Fouquet (q.v.), voting for the death of the prisoner. In 1666 he was placed at the head of a commission called to simplify the police organization, especially that of Paris; and the consequent ordinances of 1667 and 167o for the better administration of justice were drawn up by him. He died at St Germain on the 28th of January 1672. Seguier was a man of great learning, and throughout his life a patron of literature. In December 1642 he succeeded Richelieu as official " protector " of the Academy, which from that time until his death held its sessions in his house. His library was one of the most valuable of his time, only second, perhaps, to the royal collection. It contained no less than 4000 MSS. in various languages, the most important section of them being the Greek MSS. A catalogue was drawn up in Latin and in French (1685–1686) by the 1 Mme de Coislin became a widow, and in 1644 married clandestinely Guy de Laval, chevalier de Bois-dauphin, afterwards marquis of Laval. 2 She afterwards contracted a second marriage with Henri de Bourbon, duke of Verneuil, a grandson of Henry IV. duc de Coislin. The chancellor's great-grandson, Henri Charles du Cambout de Coislin, bishop of Metz, commissioned Bernard de Montfaucon, a learnedBenedictine of St Maur, to prepare a catalogue of the Greek MSS. with commentaries. This work was published in folio 1715, as Bibliotheca Coisliniana, olim Segueriana. . The greater part of the printed books were destroyed by fire, in the abbey of St Germain-des-Pres, in 1794. See F. Duchesne, Hist. des chanceliers de France (fol. 168o) ; for the affair of Val de Grace, Catalogue de documents historiques . . relatifs au regne de Louis XIII (Paris, 1847); also R. Kerviler, Le Chancelier P. Seguier (Paris, 1874). Great part of his correspondence is preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.
End of Article: JOHN DE SEGRAVE
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