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JOHN DE SEGRAVE

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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 584 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN DE
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SEGRAVE
  , 2nd Baron
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Segrave (c . 1256—1325), was one of those who supported the earls of Norfolk and of
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Hereford in their refusal to serve
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Edward I. in Gascony in 1297 . He took
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part in
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campaigns in Scotland, and like his
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brother Nicholas he signed the letter which was sent in 1301 by the barons at Lincoln to Pope Boniface VIII. repudiating the papal claim to the
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suzerainty of Scotland . Having been appointed
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warden of Scotland, Segrave was defeated at Roslin in
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February 1303; after the capture of Stirling he was again
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left in charge of this country and was responsible for the capture of
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Sir William Wallace, whom he conveyed to
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London . He was also warden of Scotland under Edward II., and was taken prisoner at
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Bannockburn, being quickly released, and dying whilst on active service in
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Aquitaine . His grandson and heir, another John (c . 1295—1353), married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton,
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earl of Norfolk, a son of Edward I . Their daughter Elizabeth married John de Mowbray, and the
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barony of Segrave was
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united with, and shared the
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fate of, that of Mowbray (q.v.) . SEGUIER 583 Other celebrated members of the Segrave
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family are Sir
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Hugh Segrave (d. c . 1386), treasurer of England from 1381 until his
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death, and Stephen de Segrave (d . 1333), a noted pluralist, who was arch-bishop of
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Armagh from 1323 until his death on the 27th of
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October 1333 . S$GUIER,
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PIERRE (1588—1672), chancellor of France, was born in Paris on the 28th of May 1588, of a famous legal family originating in Quercy .

His grandfather, Pierre Seguier (1504—158o), was

president d mortier in the parlement of Paris from 1554 to 1576, and the chancellor's
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father,
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Jean Seguier, a seigneur d'Autry, was
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civil
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lieutenant of Paris at the time of his death in 1596 . Pierre was brought up by his
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uncle, Antoine Seguier, president d mortier in the parlement, and became master of requests in 162o . From 1621 to 1624 he was intendant of
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Guienne, where he became closely allied with the duc d'
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Epernon . In 1624 he succeeded to his uncle's charge in the parlement, which he filled for nine years . In this capacity he showed
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great independence with regard to the royal authority; but when in 1633 he became keeper of the
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seals under Richelieu, he proceeded to bully and humiliate the parlement in his turn . He became allied with the cardinal's family by the
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marriage of his daughter
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Marie with Richelieu's
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nephew, Cesar du Cambout,
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marquis de Coislin,l and in December 1635 he became chancellor of France . In 1637 Seguier was sent to examine the papers of the queen, Anne of Austria, at Val de Grace . According to Anquetil, the chancellor saved her by warning her of the projected inquisition . In 1639 Seguier was sent to punish the
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Normans for the insurrection of the Nu-Pieds, the military chief of the expedition, Gassion, being placed under his orders . He put down pillage with a strong hand, and was sufficiently disinterested to refuse a gift of confiscated Norman lands . He was the submissive tool of Richelieu in the prosecutions of Cinq-Mars and Francois Auguste de Thou in 1642 . His authority survived the changes following on the successive deaths of Richelieu and Louis XIIL, and he was the faithful servant of Anne of Austria and of Mazarin .

His resolute attitude towards the parlement of Paris made the chancellor one of the chief

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objects of the hatred of the Frondeurs . On the 25th of August 1648, Seguier was sent to the parlement to regulate its proceedings . On the way he was assailed by rioters on the Pont-Neuf, and sought
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refuge in the house of Louis Charles d'Albert, duc de
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Luynes . In the course of the concessions made to the
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Fronde in 165o, Seguier was dismissed from his office of keeper of the seals . He spent part of his retirement at Rosny, with his second daughter
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Charlotte and her
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husband, the duke of Sully.' He was recalled in
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April 1651, but six months later, on the king's attaining his majority, Seguier was again disgraced, and the seals were given to President Mathieu Mole, who held them with a short
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interval till his death in 1656, when they were returned to Seguier . Seguier lived for some time in extreme retirement in Paris, devoting himself to the affairs of the academy . When Paris was occupied by the princes in 1652, he was for a short time a member of their council, but he joined the king at
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Pontoise in August, and became president of the royal council . After Mazarin's death in 1661 Seguier retained but a shadow of his former authority . He showed a great violence in his conduct of the case against Fouquet (q.v.), voting for the death of the prisoner . In 1666 he was placed at the head of a commission called to simplify the police organization, especially that of Paris; and the consequent ordinances of 1667 and 167o for the better administration of justice were
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drawn up by him . He died at St Germain on the 28th of
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January 1672 . Seguier was a man of great learning, and throughout his
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life a
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patron of literature .

In December 1642 he succeeded Richelieu as

official "
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protector " of the Academy, which from that time until his death held its sessions in his house . His library was one of the most valuable of his time, only second, perhaps, to the royal collection . It contained no less than 4000
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MSS. in various
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languages, the most important section of them being the Greek MSS . A catalogue was drawn up in Latin and in French (1685–1686) by the 1 Mme de Coislin became a widow, and in 1644 married clandestinely Guy de Laval, chevalier de Bois-dauphin, afterwards marquis of Laval . 2 She afterwards contracted a second marriage with
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Henri de Bourbon, duke of Verneuil, a grandson of Henry IV . duc de Coislin . The chancellor's great-grandson, Henri Charles du Cambout de Coislin, bishop of
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Metz, commissioned Bernard de Montfaucon, a learnedBenedictine of St Maur, to prepare a catalogue of the Greek MSS. with commentaries . This
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work was published in folio 1715, as Bibliotheca Coisliniana, olim Segueriana . . The greater part of the printed books were destroyed by fire, in the abbey of St Germain-
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des-Pres, in 1794 . See F . Duchesne, Hist. des chanceliers de France (fol . 168o) ; for the affair of Val de Grace, Catalogue de documents historiques .

. relatifs au regne de Louis XIII (Paris, 1847); also R . Kerviler, Le Chancelier P . Seguier (Paris, 1874) . Great part of his

correspondence is preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris .

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