See also:Austria, the younger, recognized as the natural son of
See also:Philip IV.,
See also:king of Spain, his
See also:mother, Maria Calderon, or Calderona, being an actress .
See also:Scandal accused her of a prodigality of favours which must have rendered the paternity of Don
See also:John very dubious, He was, however, recognized by the king, received a princely
See also:education at Ocana, and was amply endowed with commanderies in the military orders, and other forms of income . Don John was sent in 1647 to Naples—then in the throes of the popular rising first led by Masaniello—with a
See also:squadron and a military force, to support the
See also:viceroy . The restoration of royal authority was due rather to the exhaustion of the insurgents and the follies of their French
See also:leader, the duke of Guise, than to the forces of Don John . He was next sent as viceroy to
See also:Sicily, whence he was recalled in 165r to
See also:complete the pacification of
See also:Catalonia, which had been in revolt since 164o . The excesses of the French, whom the Catalans had called in, had produced a reaction, and Don John had not much more to do than to preside over the final
See also:siege of
See also:Barcelona and the
See also:convention which terminated the revolt in
See also:October 1652 . On both occasions he had played the peacemaker, and this sympathetic
See also:part, combined with his own pleasant
See also:manners and handsome
See also:person with bright eyes and abundant raven-black hair—a complete contrast to the
See also:fair complexions of the Habsburgs—made him a popular favourite . In 1656 he was sent to command in
See also:Flanders, in combination with the
See also:prince of Conde, then in revolt against his own
See also:sovereign . At the storming of the French
See also:camp at
See also:Valenciennes in 1656, Don John displayed brilliant
See also:personal courage at the
See also:head' of a
See also:charge . When, however, he took a part in the leadership of the army at the
See also:Dunes in the
See also:battle fought against
See also:Turenne and the
See also:British forces sent over by
See also:Cromwell in 1658, he was completely beaten, in spite of the efforts of Conde, whose advice he neglected, and of the hard fighting of
See also:English Royalist exiles . During 1661 and 1662 he commanded against the Portuguese in
See also:Estremadura . The
See also:Spanish troops were
See also:ill-appointed, irregularly paid and untrustworthy, but they were
See also:superior in numbers and some successes were gained .
If Don John had not suffered from the indolence which
See also:Clarendon, who knew him, considered his chief defect, the Portuguese would have been hard pressed . The greater part of the south of
See also:Portugal was overrun, but in 1663 the Portuguese were reinforced by a
See also:body of English troops, and were put under the command of the Huguenot
See also:Schomberg . By him Don John was completely beaten at Estremos . Even now he might not have lost the confidence of his
See also:father, if
See also:Mariana, mother of the sickly infante
See also:Carlos, the only surviving legitimate son of the king, had not regarded the
See also:bastard with distrust and dislike . Don John was removed from command and sent to his commandery at Consuegra . After the
See also:death of Philip IV. in 1665 Don John became the recognized leader of the opposition to the
See also:government of Philip's widow, the queen
See also:regent . She and her favourite, the German Jesuit
See also:Nithard, seized and put to death one of his most trusted servants, Don Jose Malladas . Don John, in return, put himself at the head of a rising of
See also:Aragon and Catalonia, which led to the expulsion of Nithard on the 25th of
See also:February 1669 . Don John was, however, forced to content himself with the viceroyalty of Aragon . In 1677, the queen mother having aroused universal opposition by her shameless favour for Fernando de
See also:Valenzuela, Don John was able to drive her from
See also:court, and establish himself as
See also:minister .
See also:Great hopes were entertained of his administration, but it proved disappointing and
See also:short . Don John died on the 17th of
See also:September 1679 .
The career of Don John can be followed in J . C .
See also:Memoirs of Spain 1621–1700 (Edin . 1834) .
DON JOHN (1545-1578)
GOSPEL OF ST JOHN
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