Online Encyclopedia

JOHN MOWBRAY

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 743 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN MOWBRAY, 4th duke (1444-1476), who had already been created earl of Surrey, a title formerly held by his ancestors, the Fitzalans, was the only son of the preceding. The names both of John and of his father appear frequently in the Paston Letters, as both dukes in turn seized Caister castle, which had been left by Sir John Fastolf to John Paston, and the 4th duke held it against the Pastons for some years. On his death in 1476 the dukedom became extinct, but the earldom passed to his daughter Anne (1472-1481), who married Richard, duke of York, the younger son of Edward IV. Richard was created duke of Norfolk and made earl marshal, but when he was murdered in 1483 the dukedom again became extinct, the earldom having reverted to the crown on the death of Anne. The illustrious family of Howard (q.v.), members of which have been dukes of Norfolk from 1483 to the present Howard day, with the exception of two periods during which Hoe. the title was forfeited, was connected with the family of Mowbray. JoHN HOWARD, 1st duke of Norfolk (c. 1430-1485), was the son of Sir Robert Howard by his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, the first duke of that family. In 1455 John Howard was sent to parliament as member for Norfolk, although he " hadde no lyvelode in the shire "; in 1461 he was knighted; and in 1470, although he appears to have been a consistent Yorkist, he was created a baron by Henry VI. He was treasurer of the royal household from 1467 to 1474, and went to France with Edward IV. in 1475. After Edward's death, however, he supported Richard III., who created him duke of Norfolk and made him earl marshal of England in June 1483. He was killed at Bosworth whilst fighting for this king on the 22nd of August 1485, and the title thus suffered attainder. He is frequently mentioned in the Poston Letters. His son, THOMAS HOWARD, afterwards and duke (1443-1524), shared his father's fortunes; he fought at Barnet for Edward IV. and was made steward of the royal household and created earl of Surrey in 1483. Taken prisoner at Bosworth he was attainted and remained in captivity until January 1489, when he was released and restored to his earldom but not to the dukedom of Norfolk. He was then entrusted with the maintenance of order in Yorkshire and with the defence of the Scottish borders; he was made lord treasurer and a privy councillor in 1501, and he helped to arrange the marriage between Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII., and James IV. of Scotland. Henry VIII., too, employed him on public business, but the earl grew jealous of Wolsey, and for a short time he absented himself from court. He commanded the army which defeated the Scots at Flodden in September 1513, and was created duke. of Norfolk in February of the following year, with precedency as of the creation of 1483. In his later years Norfolk worked more harmoniously with Wolsey. He was guardian of England during Henry's absence in France in 1520, and he acted as lord high steward at the trial of his friend Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, in 1521. Among his sons were William, 1st Lord Howard of Effingham, and Sir Edward Howard (c. 1477-1513), lord high admiral, who defeated the French fleet off Brest in August 1512, and lost his life during another engagement in April 1513.
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