See also:Salome . It is probable that he was
See also:born at Bethsaida, where along with his
See also:James he followed his
See also:father's occupation . The
See also:family appears to. have been in easy circumstances;. at least we find that Zebedee employed hired servants, and that Salome was among those
See also:women who contributed to the
See also:maintenance of Jesus (Marki . 20, xv . 40, 41, xvi . 1) .
See also:John's "
See also:call " to follow our
See also:Lord occurred simultaneously•with that addressed to his brother, and shortly after that addressed to the
See also:brothers Andrew and
See also:Peter (Mark i . 19, 20) . John speedily took his place among the twelve apostles, sharing with James the title of Boanerges (" sons of
See also:thunder," perhaps strictly sons of anger," i.e. men readily angered), and became a member of that inner circle to which, in addition to his brother, Peter alone belonged (Mark v . 37, ix . 2, xiv . 33), John appears throughout the synoptic record as a zealous, fiery
See also:Jew-Christian .
It is he who indignantly complains to Jesus, " We saw one casting out devils in Thy name, and he followeth not us," and tells Him, " We forbade him " for thatreason (Mark ix . 38); and who with his brother, when a Samaritan
See also:village will not receive Jesus, asks Him, " Wilt thou that we command
See also:fire to come down from,
See also:heaven and consume them?" (Luke ix..54) . The
See also:book of Acts confirms this tradition . After the departure of Jesus, John appears as
See also:present in Jerusalem with Peter and the other apostles (i . 13); is next to Peter the most prominent among those who bear testimony to the fact pf the resurrection (iii . 12—26, iv . 13, 19—22); and is sent with Peter to
See also:Samaria, to confirm the newly converted Christians there (viii . 14, 25) . St Paul tells us similarly that when, on his second visit to Jerusalem, " James," the Lord's brother, ", and Cephas and John, who were considered pillars, perceived the
See also:grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and
See also:Barnabas the right
See also:hand of fellowship, that we should, go unto the
See also:heathen, and they unto the circumcision " (Gal. ii . 9) . John thus belonged in 46—47 to the Jewish-Christian school; but we do not know whether to the stricter
See also:group of James or to the milder group of Peter (ibid. ii . 11--14) .
See also:history of the apostle is obscure .
See also:bishop of Ephesus' (in Euseb., H . E. iii . 31; V . 24), attests in 196 that John " who
See also:lay on thebosom of the Lord rests at Ephesus "; but previously in this very
See also:sentence he has declared that "
See also:Philip one of the twelve apostles rests in
See also:Hierapolis" although
See also:Eusebius (doubtless rightly) identifies this Philip riot with the apostle but with the deacon-evangelist of Acts xxi . 8 . Polycrates also declares that John was a
See also:priest wearing the airaXov (gold
See also:plate) that distinguished, the high-priestly mitre .
See also:Irenaeus in various passages of his
See also:works, 181—191, holds a similar tradition . He says that John lived tip to the
See also:time of Trajan and published his
See also:gospel in Ephesus, and identifies' the apostle with John the
See also:disciple of the Lord, who wrote the Apocalypse under
See also:Domitian, whom Irenaeus's' teacher
See also:Polycarp had known personally and of whom Polycarp had much to tell . These traditions are accepted and enlarged by later authors,
See also:Tertullian adding that John was banished to
See also:Patmos after he had miraculously survived the punishment of
See also:immersion in burning oil . As it is evident that
See also:legend was busy with John as early as the time of Polycrates, the real worth of these traditions requires to be tested by examination of their ultimate source . This inquiry has' been pressed upon scholars since the apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse or of the
See also:Fourth Gospel, or of both these works, has been disputed ..
See also:JOAN, GosPEL OF, and
See also:REVELATION, BOOK or.) The question has not been strictly one between advanced and conservative
See also:criticism, for the
See also:Tubingen school recognized the Apocalypse as apostolic, and found in it a confirmation of John's residence in Ephesus . On the other hand, Liitzelberger (184o), Th .
See also:Keim (Jesus v . Naz., vol. i., 1$67), J . H .
See also:Scholten (1872), H . J .
See also:Holtzmann (esp. in Einl. in d . N: T., 3rd ed., 1902), and other
See also:recent writers, wholly reject the tradition . It has had able defenders in Steitz (
See also:Stud. u . Krit., 1868), Hilgenfeld (Einl., 1875) and Lightfoot (Essays on Supernatural Religion, collected 1889) . W .
Sanday (Criticism of Fourth Gospel, 1905) makes passing admissions eloquent As to the strength of the negative position; whilst amongst
See also:Roman Catholic scholars, A .
See also:Loisy (Le 4me . Ev., 1903) stands with Holtzmann, and Th . Calmes (Ev. selon S .
See also:Jean, 1904, 19,36) and L . Duchesne (Hilt. anc. del'Egl., 1906) exhibit; with papal approbation, the inconclusiveness of the conservative arguments . The opponents of the tradition lay
See also:weight on the
See also:absence of
See also:positive evidence before the latter
See also:part of the 2nd century, especially in
See also:Papias and in the epistles of
See also:Ignatius and of Irenaeus's authority, Polycarp . They find it necessary to assume that Irenaeus. mistook Polycarp; but this is not a difficult task, since already Eusebius (c . 310—313) is compelled to point out that Papias testifies to two Johns, the Apostle and a presbyter, and that Irenaeus is mistaken in identifying those two Johns, and in holding that Papias had seen John the Apostle (H.E. iii . 39, 5, 2) . Irenaeus tells us, doubtless correctly, that Papias was "the
See also:companion of Polycarp ": this fact alone would suffice, given his two mistakes concerning Papias, to make Irenaeus decide that Polycarp had seen John the Apostle . The chronicler
See also:George the
See also:Monk (Hamartolus) in the 9th century, and an epitome dating from the 7th or 8th century but probably based on the
See also:Chronicle of Philip of Side (c .
430), declare, on the authority of the second book of Papias, that John the Zebedean was killed byJews (presumably in 6o—7o) . Adolf
See also:Harnack, Chien. d, altchr . Litt . (1897), pp . 656—68o), rejects the assertion; but the number of scholars who accept it as correct is distinctly on the increase . (F. v .
GOSPEL OF ST JOHN
THE EPISTLES OF JOHN
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