See also:JOHN PAUL (1747--1792),
See also:naval officer, was
See also:born on the 6th of
See also:July 1747, on the
See also:estate of Arbigland, in the
See also:parish of Kirkbean and the stewartry of
See also:Kirkcudbright, Scotland . His
See also:father, John Paul, was gardener to Robert Craik, a member of parliament; and his
See also:Macduff, was the daughter of a Highlander .
See also:Young John Paul, at the age of twelve, became shipmaster's apprentice to a
See also:merchant of
See also:White-haven, named Younger . At seventeen he shipped as second mate and in the next
See also:year as first mate in one of his
See also:master's vessels; on being released from his indentures, he acquired an
See also:interest in a
See also:ship, and as first mate made two voyages between
See also:Jamaica and the
See also:coast, trading in slaves . Becoming dissatisfied with this kind of employment, he sold his
See also:share in the ship and embarked for England . During the voyage both the captain and the mate died of fever, and John Paul took command and brought the ship safely to
See also:port . The owners gave him and the
See also:crew to% of the cargo; after 1768, as captain of one of their merchantmen, John Paul made several voyages to
See also:America; but for unknown reasons he suddenly gave up his command to live in America in poverty and obscurity until 1775 . During this
See also:period he assumed the name of Jones, apparently out of regard for Willie Jones, a wealthy planter and prominent
See also:leader of
See also:North Carolina, who had befriended John Paul in his days of poverty . When war broke out between England and her American colonies, John Paul Jones was commissioned as a first
See also:lieutenant by the
See also:Continental Congress, on the 22nd of
See also:December 1775 . In 1776 he participated in the unsuccessful attack on the
See also:island of New
See also:Providence, and as
See also:commander first of the " Providence "and then of the "
See also:Alfred " he cruised between Bermuda and Nova Scotia, inflicting much damage on
See also:shipping and
See also:fisheries . On the loth of
See also:October 1776 he was promoted captain .
On the 1st of
See also:November 1777 he sailed in the
See also:sloop-of-war "
See also:Ranger " for France with despatches for the American commissioners, announcing the surrender of Burgoyne and asking that Jones should be supplied with a swift
See also:frigate for harassing the coasts of England . Failing to secure a frigate, Jones sailed from
See also:Brest in the " Ranger " on the loth of
See also:April 1778 . A few days later he surprised the garrisons of the two forts commanding the
See also:harbour of
See also:Whitehaven, a port with which he was
See also:familiar from boyhood, spiked the guns and made an unsuccessful attempt to
See also:fire the shipping . Four days thereafter he encountered the British sloop-of-war " Drake," a vessel slightly
See also:superior to his in fighting capacity, and after an
See also:hour's engagement the British ship struck her
See also:colours and was taken to Brest . By this exploit Jones became a
See also:great hero in the eyes of the French, just beginning a war with Great Britain . With the
See also:rank of commodore he was now put at the
See also:head of a
See also:squadron of five
See also:ships . His
See also:flagship, the " Duras," a re-fitted East Indiaman, was re-named by him the " Bonhomme
See also:Richard," as a compliment to Benjamin
See also:Franklin, whose Poor Richard's
See also:Almanac was then popular in France . On the 14th of
See also:August the five ships sailed from L'Orient, accompanied by two French privateers . Several of the French commanders under Jones proved insubordinate, and the privateers and three of the men-of-war soon deserted him . With the others, however, he continued to take prizes, and even planned to attack the port of
See also:Leith, but was prevented by unfavourable winds . On the evening of the 23rd of
See also:September the three men-of-war sighted two British men-of-war, the"
See also:Serapis " and the "Countess of Scarbrough," off Flamborough Head . The "
See also:Alliance," commanded by Captain Landais, made off, leaving the " Bonhomme Richard " and the "
See also:Pallas " to engage the Englishmen .
Jones engaged the greatly superior " Serapis," and after a desperate
See also:battle of three and a
See also:hours compelled the
See also:English ship to surrender . The " Countess of Scarbrough " had meanwhile struck to the more formidable " Pallas." Jones transferred his men and supplies to the " Serapis," and the next
See also:day the " Bonhomme Richard " sank . During the following year Jones spent much of his
See also:time in
See also:Paris .
See also:Louis XVI. gave him a gold-hilted sword and the royal
See also:order of military merit, and made him chevalier of France . Early in 1781 Jones returned to America to secure a new command . Congress offered him the command of the " America," a frigate then
See also:building, but the vessel was shortly afterwards given to France . In November 1783 he was sent to Paris as
See also:agent for the prizes captured in
See also:waters under his own command, and although he gave much
See also:attention to social affairs and engaged in several private business enter-prises, he was very successful in
See also:collecting the prize
See also:money . Early in 1787 he returned to America and received a gold medal from Congress in .recognition of his services . In 1788 Jones entered the service of the empress Catherine of Russia, avowing his intention, however, to preserve the
See also:condition of an American
See also:citizen and officer." As a
See also:admiral he took
See also:part in the naval
See also:campaign in the Liman (an
See also:arm of the Black
See also:Sea, into which flow the
See also:Bug and
See also:rivers) against the Tuxks, but the jealous intrigues of
See also:officers caused him to be recalled to St
See also:Petersburg for the pretended purpose of being transferred to a command in the North Sea . Here he was compelled to remain in idleness, while
See also:rival officers plotted against him and even maliciously assailed his private character . In August 1789 he
See also:left St Petersburg a bitterly disappointed man . In May 1790 he arrived in Paris, where he remained in retirement during the
See also:rest of his
See also:life, although he made several efforts to re-enter the Russian service .
Undue exertion and exposure had wasted his strength before he reached the
See also:prime of life, and after an illness, in which he was attended by the
See also:queen's physician, he died on the 18th of July 1792 . His
See also:body was interred in the St Louis cemetery for
See also:foreign Protestants, the funeral expenses being paid from the private
See also:purse of
See also:Francois Simmoneau, the
See also:king's commissary . In the confusion during the following years the
See also:burial place of Paul Jones was forgotten; but in
See also:June 1899 General Horace
See also:Porter, American
See also:ambassador to France, began a systematic
See also:search for the body, and after excavations on the site of the old
See also:Protestant cemetery, now covered with houses, a leaden
See also:coffin was discovered, which contained the body in a remarkable state of preservation . In July 1905 a
See also:fleet of American war-ships carried the body to
See also:Annapolis, where it now rests in one of the buildings of the naval academy . Jones was a
See also:seaman of great bravery and technical ability, but over-jealous of his reputation and inclined to be querulous and boastful . The charges by the English that he was a pirate were particularly galling to him . Although of unprepossessing appearance, 5 ft . 7 in. in height and slightly
See also:round-shouldered, he was noted for his pleasant
See also:manners and was welcomed into the most brilliant courts of
See also:Europe .
See also:Romance has played with the memory of Paul Jones to such an extent that few accounts of his life are correct . Of the early
See also:biographies the best are Sherburne's (
See also:London, 1825), chiefly a collection of Jones's
See also:correspondence; the Janette-
See also:Taylor Collection (New
See also:York, 1830), containing numerous extracts from his letters and
See also:journals; and the life by A . S .
See also:MacKenzie (2 vols., New York, 1846) .
See also:recent years a number of new biographies have appeared, including A . C .
See also:Buell's (2 vols., 1900), the trustworthiness of which has been discredited, and Hutchins Hapgood's in the
See also:Biographical Series (19o1) . The life by Cyrus Townsend
See also:Brady in the " Great Commanders Series " (1900) is perhaps the best .
VICTORIN JONCIERES (1839–1903)
ALFRED GILPIN JONES (1824-1906)
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