See also:born in the
See also:island of
See also:Martinique on the 23rd of
See also:June 1763, being the eldest of three daughters of
See also:Joseph Tascher de la Pagerie,
See also:lieutenant of
See also:artillery . Her beauty and
See also:grace, though of a languid
See also:style, won the affections of the
See also:young officer the vicomte de Beauharnais, and, after some
See also:family complications, she was married to him . Their married
See also:life was not wholly happy, the frivolity of Josephine occasioning her
See also:husband anxiety and
See also:jealousy . Two
See also:Eugene and Hortense, were the fruit of the union . During Josephine's second residence in Martinique, whither she proceeded to tend her
See also:mother, occurred the first troubles with the slaves, which resulted from the precipitate
See also:action of the constituent
See also:assembly in emancipating them . She returned to her husband, who at that
See also:time entered into
See also:political life at
See also:Paris . Her beauty and vivacity won her many admirers in the salons of the capital . As the Revolution ran its course her husband, as an ex-
See also:noble, incurred the suspicion and hostility of the
See also:Jacobins; and his
See also:ill-success at the
See also:head of a French army on the Rhine led to his arrest and execution . Thereafter Josephine was in a position of much perplexity and some hardship, but the friendship of Barras and of Madame
See also:Tallien, to both of whom she was then much attached, brought her into
See also:notice, and she was one of the queens of Parisian society in the
See also:year 1795, when
See also:Bonaparte's services to the French
See also:convention in scattering the malcontents of the capital (13 Vendemiaire, or
See also:October 5, 1795) brought him to the front . There is a
See also:story that she became known to Napoleon through a visit paid to him by.her son Eugene in
See also:order to beg his help in procuring the restoration of his
See also:father's sword, but it rests on slender
See also:foundations . In any case, it is certain that Bonaparte, however he came to know her, was speedily captivated by her charms . She, on her side,
See also:felt very little affection for the thin, impecunious and irrepressible suitor; but by degrees she came to acquiesce in the thought of
See also:marriage, her hesitations, it is said, being removed by the influence of Barras and by the nomination of Bonaparte to the command of the army of Italy .
See also:civil marriage took place on the 9th of
See also:March 1796, two days before the bridegroom set out for his command . He failed to induce her to go with him to
See also:Nice and Italy . Bonaparte's letters to Josephine during the
See also:campaign reveal the ardour of his love, while she rarely answered them . As he came to realize her shallowness and frivolity his passion cooled; but at the time when he resided at Montebello (near Milan) in 1797 he still showed
See also:great regard for her . During his
See also:absence in
See also:Egypt in 1798–1799, her relations to an officer, M .
See also:Charles, were most compromising; and Bonaparte on his return thought of divorcing her . Her tears and the entreaties of Eugene and Hortense availed to bring about a reconciliation; and during the
See also:period of the consulate (1799–1804) their relations were on the whole happy, though Napoleon's conduct now gave his
See also:grave cause for concern . His
See also:brothers and sisters more than once begged him to
See also:divorce Josephine, and it is known that,from the time when he became first
See also:consul for life (
See also:August 1802) with large
See also:powers over the choice of a successor, he kept open the alternative of a divorce . Josephine's anxieties increased on the proclamation of the
See also:Empire (May 18, 1804); and on the 1st of
See also:December 1804, the
See also:eve of the
See also:coronation at Notre
See also:Dame, she gained her wish that she should be married anew to Napoleon with religious
See also:rites . Despite her care, the emperor procured the omission of one formality, the presence of the
See also:priest; but at the coronation scene Josephine appeared radiant with
See also:triumph over her envious relatives . The august marriages contracted by her children Eugene and Hortense seemed to establish her position; but her ceaseless extravagance and, above all, the impossibility that she should bear a son strained the relation's between Napoleon and Josephine . She complained of his infidelities and growing callousness .
The end came in sight after the campaign of 1809, when Napoleon caused the announcement to be made to her that reasons ofstate compelled him to divorce her . Despite all her pleadings he held to his resolve . The most was made of the slight technical irregularity at the marriage ceremony of the 1st of December 1804; and the marriage was declared null and void . At her private retreat, La Malmaison, near Paris, which she had beautified with curios and rare
See also:plants and
See also:flowers, Josephine closed her life in dignified retirement . Napoleon more than once came to consult her upon matters in which he valued her tact and
See also:good sense . Her
See also:health declined early in 1814, and after his first
See also:abdication (
See also:April 11, 1814) it was clear that her end was not far off . The emperor
See also:Alexander of Russia and
See also:William III. of Prussia, then in Paris, requested an interview with her . She died on the 24th of May 1814 . Her friends, Mme de Remusat and others, pointed out that Napoleon's good
See also:fortune deserted him after the divorce; and it is certain that the
See also:Austrian marriage clogged him in several ways . Josephine's influence was used on behalf of peace and moderation both in
See also:internal and in
See also:foreign affairs . Thus she begged Napoleon not to execute the duc d'Enghien and not to embroil himself in
See also:Spanish affairs in 1808 . See M .
A . Le Normand, Memoires historiques et secrets de Josephine (2 vols., 1820) ; Lettres de Napoleon a Josephine (1833) ; J . A .
See also:Aubenas, Hist. de l'imperatrice Josephine (2 vols., 1858—1859) ; J . Turquan, L'Imperatrice Josephine (2 vols., 1895—1896) ; F . Masson, Josephine (3 vols., 1899—1902); Napoleon's Letters to Josephine (17996—1812), translated and edited by H . F .
See also:Hall (1903) . Also the
See also:Memoirs of Mme. de Remusat and of Bausset, and P . W . Sergeant, The Empress Josephine (1908) . (J .
FATHER JOSEPH (FRANCOIS LECLERC DU TREMBLAY) (1577-...
FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (c. 37-C. 95?)
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