JOSIAH (Heb. yo' shiyydhu, perhaps " Yah [weh] supports ") , in theBible, the
See also:grandson of
See also:Manasseh, and
See also:king of
See also:Judah . He came to the
See also:throne at the age of eight, after the
See also:murder of his predecessor Amon . The circumstances of his minority are not recorded, nor is anything related of the Scythian inroads which occurred in the latter
See also:half of the 7th century B.C., although some passages in the books of
See also:Jeremiah and
See also:Zephaniah are supposed to refer to the events . The
See also:storm which shook the
See also:external states was favourable to the peace of Judah; the
See also:Assyrian power was practically broken, and that of the Chaldeans had scarcely
See also:developed into an aggressive
See also:form .
See also:Samaria thus
See also:lay within the grasp of Josiah, who may have entertained hopes of forming an
See also:independent power of his own . Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the
See also:Egyptian king Necho, since the
See also:assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him . At all events, at the
See also:battle of Megiddo' he lost both his
See also:kingdom and his
See also:life (6o8 B.C.), and for a few years Judah was in the hands of
See also:Egypt (2
See also:xxiii . 29 seq.) . The chronicler gives a rather different account of the battle, and his allusion to the
See also:dirge uttered by Jeremiah over his
See also:death (2 ChroA.
See also:xxxv . 20-25; 1 Esd. i . 32) represents the tradition which makes this
See also:prophet the author of the
See also:book of Lamentations . The reign of Josiah is important for the biblical account of the
See also:great religious reforms which began in his eighteenth
See also:year, when he manifested
See also:interest in the repair cf the
See also:Temple at Jerusalem .
In the course of this
See also:work the high
See also:priest Hilkiah discovered a "
See also:law-book " which gave rise to the liveliest concern . The reasons for believing that this
See also:roll was substantially identical with the book of
See also:Deuteronomy were already appreciated by
See also:Theodoret and others,' and a careful examination shows that the character of the reformation which followed agrees in all its essential features with the prescriptions and exhortations of that book . (See DEUTERONOMY.) But the detailed records in 2 Kings xxii. seq. are evidently written under the influence of the reforms themselves, and are not contemporary (see KINGS, BOOK OF) . They are further
See also:expanded, to agree with still later ideals, in 2 Chron. xxxiv. seq . The
See also:original roll was
See also:short enough to be read at least twice in a
See also:day (xxii . 8, 1o), and hence only some portions of Deuteronomy (or of an allied production) may be intended . Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable
See also:light upon the
See also:condition of religion in Judah in the
See also:time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the
See also:history of the king's
See also:measures . (See further JEws, § 16.) (S . A . C.) JbSIKA, MIKLOS [
See also:NICHOLAS], BARON (1794-1865), Hungarian novelist, was
See also:born on the 28th of
See also:April 1794 at Torda in Transylvania, of aristocratic and wealthy parents . After
See also:finishing the usual course of legal studies at Kolozsvar (Klausenburg), he in 1811 entered the army, joining a
See also:cavalry regiment, with which he subsequently took
See also:part in the
See also:campaign . On the battlefield of Mincio (
See also:February 8, 1814) he was promoted to the grade of
See also:lieutenant .
He served in the campaign against
See also:Napoleon, and was
See also:present at the entry of the Allied Troops into
See also:Paris (
See also:March 31, 1814) . In 1818 Jbsika resigned his commission, returned to Hungary, and married his first wife 2 Or " Magdolos " (Herod. ii . 159), i.e. some " Migdal " (tower) of
See also:Judaea, not the Migdol of Exod. xiv . 2; Jer. xliv . 1 . 3 See Zeit. f . Alttest . Wissenschaft (1902), pp . 170 seq., 312 seq.; Journ Bib . Lit . (1903), p . 50 .
See also:Elizabeth Kallai . The union proving an unhappy one, Josika parted from his wife, settled on his
See also:estate at Szurdok in Transylvania, and devoted himself to agricultural and
See also:literary pursuits .
See also:Drawn into the sphere of politics, he took part in the memorable Transylvanian
See also:diet of 1834 . About this time Josika first began to attract
See also:attention as a writer of fiction . In 1836 his Abaft laid the foundation of his literary reputation . This novel gives a vivid picture of Transylvania in the time of
See also:Sigismund Batori . Josika was soon afterwards elected member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and of the
See also:Kisfaludy Society; of the latter he became, in 1841, director, and in 1842
See also:president . In 1847 he appeared at the Transylvanian diet as second
See also:deputy for the
See also:county of Szolnok, and zealously supported the
See also:movement for the union of Transylvania with Hungary proper . In the same year he was converted to Protestantism, was formally divorced from his wife, and married Baroness Julia Podmaniczky, herself a writer of considerable merit, with whom he lived happily until his death . So great was J6sika's literary activity that by the time of the revolution (1848) he had already produced about sixty volumes of romances and novels, besides numerous contributions to
See also:periodicals . Both as magnate of the upper
See also:house of the Hungarian diet and by his writings Josika aided the revolutionary movement, with which he was soon personally identified, being chosen one of the members of the
See also:committee of
See also:national defence . Consequently, after the capitulation at Vilagos (Aug .
13, 1849) he found it necessary to flee the
See also:country, and settled first at
See also:Dresden and then, in 1850, at Brussels, where he resumed his literary pursuits anonymously . In 1864 he removed to Dresden, in which city he died on the 27th of February 1865 . The romances of Josika, written somewhat after the
See also:style of
See also:Sir Walter
See also:Scott, are chiefly of an
See also:historical and social-
See also:political character, his materials being drawn almost entirely from the
See also:annals of his own country . Among his more important
See also:works may be specially mentioned, besides Abafi—The Poet Zrinyi (1843) ; The Last of the Bdtoris (1837); The Bohemians in Hungary (1839);
See also:Esther (1853);
See also:Francis Rdkdczy II . (1861) ; and A Vegvdriak, a
See also:tale of the time of the Transylvanian
See also:Bethlen Gabor, 1864 . Many of J6sika's novels have been translated into German . See K . Moenich and S . Vutkovich, Magyar Irok Nevtdra (1876) ; M .
See also:Jokai, " Josika Miklos Emlekezete," A Kisfaludy-Tdrsaseig Evlapjai, Uj folyam, vol. iii . (1869) ; G . W .
Steinacker, Ungarische Lyriker (1874) . Cf. also J6sika's autobiography—Emlekirat, vol. iv . (1865) .
BOOK OF JOSHUA
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