JUBA, or JUB , a
See also:river of East Africa, exceeding r000 m. in length, rising on the S.E. border of the Abyssinian
See also:highlands and flowing S. across the Galla and Somali countries to the
See also:sea . It is formed by the junction of three streams, all having their source in the
See also:mountain range N.E. of Lake Rudolf which is thewater-parting between the Nile
See also:basin and the
See also:rivers flowing to the
See also:Indian Ocean . Of the three headstreams, the
See also:Web, the Ganale and the Daua, the Ganale (or Ganana) is the central river and the true upper course of the Juba . It has two chief branches, the Black and the
See also:Great Ganale . The last-named, the most remote source of the river, rises in 7° 3o' N., 38° E. at an altitude of about 7500 ft., the crest of the mountains reaching another 2500 ft . In its upper course it flows over a rocky
See also:bed with a swift current and many rapids . The
See also:banks are clothed with dense
See also:jungle and the hills beyond with thorn-
See also:bush .
See also:Lower down the river has formed a narrow valley, 1500 to 2000 ft. below the general level of the
See also:country . Leaving the higher mountains in about 50 15' N., 40° E., the Ganale enters a large slightly undulating grass plain which extends south of the valley of the Daua and occupies all the country eastward to the junction of the two rivers . In this plain the Ganale makes a semicircular sweep northward before resuming its general S.-E. course . East of 42° E. in 4° 12' N. it is joined by the Web on the
See also:left or eastern
See also:bank, and about Io m. lower down the Daua enters on the right bank . The Web rises in the mountain chain a little S. and E. of the
See also:sources of the Ganale, and some 40 m. from its source passes, first, through a
See also:canon 500 ft. deep, and then through a series of remarkable underground caves hollowed out of a
See also:quartz mountain and, with their
See also:arches and
See also:white columns, presenting the appearance of a pillared
See also:temple .
The Daua (or Dawa) is formed by the mountain torrents which have their rise S. and W. of the Ganale and is of similarcharacter to that river . It has few feeders and none of any
See also:size . The descent to the open country is somewhat abrupt . In its
See also:middle course the Daua has cut a deep narrow valley through the plain ; lower down it bends N.E. to its junction with the Ganale . The river is not deep and can be forded in many places; the banks are fringed with thick bush and dom-palms . At the junction of the Ganale and the Web the river is swift-flowing and 85 yards across; just below the Daua confluence it is 200 yds. wide, the altitude here—3oo m. in a
See also:line from the source of the Ganale—being only 590 ft . Below the Daua the river, now known as the Juba, receives no tributary of importance . It first flows in a valley bounded, especially towards the west, by the escarpments of a high
See also:plateau, and containing the towns of Lugh (in 3° 50' N., the centre of active
See also:trade), Bardera, 387 in. above the mouth, and Saranli—the last two on opposite sides of the stream, in 2 ° 20' N., a
See also:crossing-place for caravans . Beyond 1 ° 45' N. the country becomes more level and the course of the river very tortuous . On the west a series of small lakes and backwaters receives
See also:water from the Juba during the rains . Just south of the equator channels from the long, branching Lake Deshekwama or Hardinge, fed by the Lakdera river, enter from the west, and in o° 15' S. the Juba enters the sea across a dangerous
See also:bar, which has only one
See also:fathom of water at high
See also:tide . From its mouth to 20 M. above Bardera, where at 2° 35' N. rapids occur, the Juba is navigable by shallow-
See also:draught steamers, having a general
See also:depth of from 4 to 12 ft., though shallower in places .
Just above its mouth it is a
See also:fine stream 250 yds. wide, with a current of 21 knots . Below the mountainous region of the headstreams the Juba and its tributaries flow through a country generally arid away from the banks of the streams . The
See also:soil is sandy, covered either with thorn-scrub or
See also:rank grass, which in the
See also:season affords herbage for the herds of
See also:sheep and camels owned by the Boran Gallas and the Somali who inhabit the
See also:district . But by the banks of the lower river the character of the country changes . In this district, known as Gosha, are considerable tracts of
See also:forest, and the level of
See also:flood water is higher than much of the surrounding
See also:land . This low-lying fertile
See also:belt stretches along the river for about 300 m., but . is not more than a mile or two wide . In the river valley
See also:cotton and other crops are cultivated . From Gobwen, a trading settlement about 3 m. above the mouth of the Juba, a road runs S.W. to the seaport of Kismayu, to in. distant . The lower Juba was ascended in 1865 in a steamer by Baron Karl von der Decken, who was murdered by Somali at Bardera, but the river
See also:system remained otherwise almost unknown until after 1890 . In 1891 a survey of its lower course was executed by Captain F . G . Dundas of the
See also:navy, while in 1892–1893 its headstreams were explored by the
See also:officers, Captains
See also:Vittorio, Bottego and Grixoni, the former of whom disproved the supposed connexion of the Omo (see RUDOLF, LAKE) with the Juba system .
It has since been further explored by
See also:Prince Eugenio Ruspoli, by Bottego's second expedition (1895), by Donaldson
See also:Smith, A . E .
See also:Butter, Captain P . Maud of the British army, and others . The river, from its mouth to the confluence of the Daua and Ganale, forms the frontier between the British East Africa
See also:protectorate and Italian
See also:Somaliland; and from that point to about 40 20' N. the Daua is the boundary between British and Abyssinian territory .
JUBBULPORE, or JABALPUR
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