JUDAH , a
See also:district of
See also:Palestine, to the south of the
See also:kingdom of
See also:Israel, between the Dead
See also:Sea and the
See also:Philistine plain . It falls physically into three parts: the
See also:country from
See also:Hebron northwards through Jerusalem; the
See also:lowland (Heb . She'phelah) on the west; and the
See also:steppes or " dry
See also:land " (Heb . Negeb) on the south . The district is one of striking contrasts, with a lofty and stony table-land in the centre (which reaches a height of 3300 ft. just
See also:north of Hebron), with a strategically important valley dividing the central mountains from the low-land, and with the most desolate of tracts to the east (by the Dead Sea) and south .. Some parts, especially around Hebron, are extremely fertile, but the land as a whole has the characteristics of the
See also:southern wilderness—the so-called "
See also:desert " is not a sterile Sahara—and was more fitted for pastoral occupations; see further G . A .
See also:Smith, Hist . Geog .
See also:Holy Land, chs. x.–xv .
See also:Life in ancient Judah is frequently depicted in the Bible, but much of the Judaean
See also:history is obscure . In the days of the old
See also:monarchy there were periods of conflict and rivalry between Judah and Israel—even times when the latter incorporated, or at least claimed supremacy over, the former .
Later, from the 5thcentury B.C. there was a
See also:breach between the Jews (the name is derived from Judah) and the
See also:Samaritans (q.v.) . The intervening years after the fall of
See also:Samaria (722 B.C.), and after the destruction of Jerusalem (586 B.C.), were probably marked by closer intercourse, similar to the
See also:period of union in the popular traditions
See also:relating to the pre-monarchical age . The course of Judaean history was conditioned, also, by the proximity of the
See also:Philistines in the west,
See also:Moab in the east, and by
See also:Edom and other southern peoples extending from North
See also:Arabia to the
See also:delta of the Nile . Judah's stormy history, continued under Greek and
See also:Roman domination, reached its
See also:climax in the
See also:birth of
See also:Christianity, and ended with the fall of Jerusalem in A.D . 70 (see JEWS, PALESTINE) . In conformity with ancient methods of genealogy (q.v.), Judah is traced back to a son of Jacob or Israel by Leah and along with other " tribes " (
See also:Dan, Levi, Simeon, &c.) is included under the collective
See also:term Israel . Thus it shares the general traditions of the Israelites, although Judah appears as an individual in the
See also:story of his "
See also:brother "
See also:Joseph (on ch.
See also:xxxvii. seq., see
See also:GENESIS) . Its boundaries in
See also:Joshua xv. are manifestly artificial or imaginary; they include the Philistines and number places which are elsewhere ascribed to Simeon or Dan . The origin of the name (Yehudah) is quite uncertain; the
See also:interpretation " praised " is suggested in Gen.
See also:xxix . 35 (cf. xlix . 8 seq.), but some connexion with allied names, as Yehud (Yahudiya, E. of Jaffa), or
See also:Ehud (a Benjamite
See also:clan) seems more probable . That Judah, whatever its
See also:connotation, underwent development through the incorporation of other clans appears from 1 Chron. ii., iv., where it is found to contain a large
See also:element of non-Israelite population whose names find analogies or
See also:parallels in Simeonite, Edomite and other southern lists., Indeed, I See especially
See also:Wellhausen, De gentibus et familiis Judaeorum (
See also:Gottingen, 1869), the articles on the relative proper names in the Ency .
Bib., and E .
See also:Meyer, Die Israeliten u. ihre Nachbarstamme, pp . 299–471 (much valuable
See also:matter).underlying the account of the Israelite exodus (q.v.) there are traces of a
See also:movement of certain clans—apart from the Israelite invasion of Palestine—who are ultimately found in the south of Judah; and the traditions in
See also:Chronicles themselves allow the view that the incorporation of these elements began under
See also:David, when Judah first occupies a prominent position in biblical history (cf .
See also:Cheyne, Ency . Bib., col . 2618 seq., and see
See also:KENITES) . But such movements were not necessarily limited to one single period, and the evidence connecting (a) the non-Israelite clans of Judah with
See also:Levites, and (b) both with the south, is found in narratives referring to several different ages and might point to an unceasing relationship with the south . On the other
See also:hand, clans, which in the traditions of David's
See also:time were in the south of Judah, about five
See also:hundred years later (in the
See also:exile) are found near Jerusalem (e.g . Caleb), so that either these survived the strenuous vicissitudes of
See also:half a
See also:millennium or all perspective of their early history has been lost . In Gen. xxxviii. a curious narrative points to the separation of Judah " from his brethren " and his
See also:marriage with Shua the Canaanite; two sons Er and Onan perish and the third Shelah survives . From Judah and Er's widow Tamar are derived
See also:Perez and Zerah, and these with Shelah appear in
See also:post-exilic times as the three representative families of Judah (Neh. xi . 4–6; 1 Chron. ix .
4–6) . This story, amid a number of other motives, appears to reflect the growth of the tribe of Judah and its fluctuations, but that the reference is to any very early period is unlikely, partly because the
See also:interest of the story is In post-exilic families, and partly because the scenes (
See also:Adullam, Chezib and Timnah) overlap with David's own fights between Hebron and Jerusalem (2 Sam. xxi.
See also:xxiii.; see DAVID, ad fin.).2 Even David's
See also:conquest of Jerusalem (2 Sam. v.) conflicts both with the statement of its capture by Judah many years previously (
See also:Judges i . 8), and with the traditions of the Israelite heroes Joshua and
See also:Saul . Consequently, the few surviving data are too uncertain for any decisive conclusions regarding the origin of the tribe of Judah . Judah as a kingdom may have taken its name from a limited district, in which case its growth finds a parallel in the extension of the name Samaria from the city to the province . The location of Yehud and Ehud in the
See also:light of 1
See also:Kings iv . 8-19 (perhaps the subdivisions of the Israelite kingdom, see SOLOMON), would necessitate the
See also:assumption of a violent separation from the north; this, however, is quite conceivable (see JEws, §§ 11–13) . On the bearing of South Judah upon the
See also:criticism of the Old Testament, see especially N .
See also:Schmidt, Hibbert Journal (1908), pp . 322–342, " The Jerahmeel Theory and the Historic Importance of the Negeb, with some account of
See also:personal exploration of the country "; also JEws, § 20 . (S . A .
JUDAS ISCARIOT ('IouSas 'Ioicaptd rrts or 'Ivuapu',...
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