KALAT , thecapital of
See also:Baluchistan, situated in 29° 2' N. and 66° .35' E., about 678o ft. above
See also:sea-level, 88 m. from
See also:Quetta . The
See also:town gives its name also to a native state with an
See also:area, including
See also:Makran and Kharan, of 71,593 M. and a population (19o1) of 470,336 . The word Kalat is derived from kola—a fortress; and Kalat is the most picturesque fortress in the Baluch high-lands . It crowns a low
See also:round the
See also:base of which clusters the closely built mass of
See also:flat-roofed mud houses which
See also:form the insignificant town . A miri or citadel, having an imposing appearance, dominates the town, and contains within its walls the palace of the khan . It was in an upper
See also:room of this residence that Mehrab Khan, ruler of Baluchistan, was killed during the storming of the town and citadel by the
See also:British troops at the close of the first Afghan War in 1839 . In 1901 it had a population of only 2000 . The valleys immediately surrounding the fortress are well cultivated and thickly inhabited, in spite of their
See also:elevation and the extremes of temperature to which they are exposed .
See also:Recent surveys of Baluchistan have determined the position of Hozdar or Khozdar (27° 48' N., 66° 38' E.) to be about 50 M . S. of Kalat . Khozdar was the former capital of Baluchistan, and is as directly connected with the
See also:southern branches of the Mulla Pass as Kalat is with the
See also:northern, the Mulla being the
See also:trade route to Gandava (Kandabe) and
See also:Sind . In spite of the rugged and barren nature of the
See also:mountain districts of the Kalat
See also:highlands, the
See also:main routes through them (concentrating on Khozdar rather than on Kalat) are comparatively easy .
The old "
See also:Pathan vat," the trade
See also:highway between Kalat and
See also:Karachi by the Hab valley, passes through Khozdar . From Khozdar another route strikes a little west of south to
See also:Wad, and then passes easily into
See also:Las Bela . This is the " Kohan vat." A third route runs to Nal, and leads to the
See also:head of the Kolwa valley (
See also:meeting with no
See also:physical obstruction), and then strikes into the open high road to
See also:Persia . Some of the valleys about Kalat (Mastang, for instance) are wide and fertile, full of thriving villages and strikingly picturesque; and in spite of the great preponderance of mountain
See also:wilderness (a wilderness which is, however, in many parts well adapted for the pasturage of
See also:sheep) existing in the Sarawan lowlands almost equally with the Jalawan highlands, it is not difficult to understand the importance which the province of Kalat, anciently called Turan (or Tubaran), maintained in the eyes of
See also:medieval Arab geographers (see BALUCHISTAN) . New
See also:light has been thrown on the
See also:history of Kalat by the
See also:translation of an unpublished
See also:manuscript obtained at
See also:Tatta by Mr Tate, of the
See also:Indian Survey Department, who has added thereto notes from the Tufhat-ul-Kiram, for the use of which he was indebted to Khan
See also:Sahib Rasul Baksh, mukhtiardar of Tatta . According to these authorities, the
See also:family of the khans of Kalat is of Arabic origin, and not, as is usually stated, of Brahuic extraction . They belong to the Ahmadzai branch of the Mirwari
See also:clan, which originally emigrated from
See also:Oman to the Kolwa valley of Mekran . The khan of Kalat, Mir Mahmud Khan, who succeeded his
See also:father in 1893, is the leading chieftain in the Baluch Confederacy . The revenue of the khan is estimated at nearly £6o,00o, including subsidies from the British
See also:government; and an accrued surplus of £240,000 has been invested in Indian securities . See G . P . Tate, Kalat (
See also:Calcutta, 1896) ; Baluchistan
See also:District Gazetteer, vol. vi .
(Bombay, 1907) . (T . H . H.*) KALAT-I-
See also:GHILZAI, a fort in
See also:Afghanistan . It is situated on an isolated rocky
See also:eminence 5543 ft. above sea-level and 200 ft. above the plain, on the right
See also:bank of the
See also:river Tarnak, on the road between
See also:Kabul and
See also:Kandahar, 87 m. from Kandahar and 229 M. from Kabul . It is celebrated for its gallant defence by Captain Craigie and a
See also:sepoy garrison against the Afghans in the first Afghan War of 2842 .
KALAPUYA, or CALLAPOOYA
JOHANN KALB (" BARON DE KALB ") (1721—1780)
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