See also:Kalmuck or Kalmyk Tatars, in the
See also:government of
See also:Astrakhan, bounded by the
See also:Volga on the N.E., the
See also:Manych on the S.W., the
See also:Sea on the E., and the territory of the Don Cossacks on the N.W . Its
See also:area is 36,900 sq. m., to which has to be added a second reservation of 3045 sq. m. on the
See also:bank of the
See also:lower Volga . According to I . V . Mushketov, the Kalmuck Steppe must be divided into two parts, western and eastern . The former, occupied by the Ergeni hills, is deeply trenched by ravines and rises 300 and occasionally 63o ft. above the sea . It is built up of
See also:Tertiary deposits, belonging to the Sarmatian division of the
See also:period and covered with
See also:loess and black
See also:earth, and its escarpments represent the old
See also:line of the Caspian . No Caspian deposits are found on or within the Ergeni hills . These hills exhibit the usual black earth
See also:flora, and they have a settled population . The eastern
See also:part of the steppe is a plain, lying for the most part 30 to 40 ft. below the level of the sea, and sloping gently towards the Volga .
See also:Post-Pliocene "
See also:Aral-Caspian deposits," containing the usual fossils (Hydrobia, Neritina, eight
See also:species of Cardium, two of Dreissena, three of Adacna and Lithoglyphus caspius), attain thicknesses varying from 1o5 ft. to 7 or 10 ft., and disappear in places . Lacustrine and fluviatile deposits occur intermingled with the above .
Large areas of moving sands exist near Enotayevsk, where high
See also:dunes or barkhans have been formed . A narrow
See also:tract of
See also:land along the
See also:coast of the Caspian, known as 'the " hillocks of Baer," is covered with hillocks elongated from west to east, perpendicularly to the coast-line, the spaces between them being filled with
See also:water or overgrown with thickets of
See also:reed, Salix, Ulmus campestris,
See also:almond trees, &c . An
See also:archipelago of little islands is thus formed close to the shore by these mounds, which are backed on the N. and N.W. by strings of
See also:salt lakes, partly desiccated . Small streams originate in the Ergenis, but are lost as soon as they reach the lowlands, where water can only be obtained from
See also:wells . The scanty vegetation is a mixture of the flora of south-east Russia and that of the deserts of central
See also:Asia . The steppe has an estimated population of 130,000 persons, living in over 27,700 kibitkas, or
See also:felt tents . There are over 6o Buddhist monasteries . Part of the Kalmucks are settled (chiefly in the hilly parts), the
See also:remainder being nomads . They breed horses,
See also:cattle and
See also:sheep, but suffer heavy losses from murrain . Some attempts at
See also:agriculture and
See also:tree-planting are being made . The breeding of livestock, fishing, and some domestic trades, chiefly carried on by the
See also:women, are the
See also:sources of
See also:maintenance .
See also:Conservatoire, and soon began to
See also:play in public .
From 1814 to 1823 he was well known as a brilliant performer and a successful teacher in
See also:London, and then settled in Paris, dying at Enghien, near there, in 1849 . He became a member of the Paris piano-manufacturing
See also:firm of
See also:Pleyel & Co., and made a
See also:fortune by his business and his
See also:art combined . His numerous compositions are less remembered now than his instruction-
See also:book, with " studies," which have had considerable vogue among pianists .
COUNT GUSTAV SIEGMUND KALNOKY (1832–1898)
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