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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 703 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FRIEDRICH HEINRICH EMANUEL KAYSER (1845- ), German geologist and palaeontologist, was born at Konigsberg, on the 26th of March 1845. He was educated at Berlin where he took his degree of Ph.D. in 187o. In 1882 he became professor of geology in the university at Marburg. He investigated fossils of various ages and from all parts of the world, but more especially from the Palaeozoic formations, including those of South Africa, the Polar regions, and notably the Devonian fossils of Germany, Bohemia and other parts of Europe. Among his separate works are Lehrbuch der Geologie (2 vols., ii.), Geologische Formaiionskunde 1891 (2nd ed., 1902), and i. Allgemeine Geologie (1893), vol. ii. (the volume first issued) was translated and edited by P. Lake, 1893, under the title Textbook of Comparative Geology. Another work is Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Fauna der Siegenschen Grauwacke (1892). KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH, SIR JAMES PHILLIPS, BART. (1804-1877), English politician and educationalist, was born at Rochdale, Lancashire, on the loth of July 1804, the son of Robert Kay. At first engaged in a Rochdale bank, in 1824 he became a medical student at Edinburgh University. Settling in Manchester about 1827, he worked for the Ancoats and Ardwick Dispensary, and the experience which he thus gained of the conditions of the poor in the Lancashire factory districts, together with his interest in economic science, led to his appointment in 1835 as poor law commissioner in Norfolk and Suffolk and later in the London districts. In 1839 he was appointed first secretary of the committee formed by the Privy Council to administer the Government grant for the public education in Great Britain. He is remembered as having founded at Battersea, London, in conjunction with E. Carleton Tufnell, the first training college for school teachers (1839-1840); and the system of national school education of the present day, with its public inspection, trained teachers and its support by state as well as local funds, is largely due to his initiative. In 1842 he married Lady Janet Shuttleworth, assuming by royal licence his bride's name and arms. A breakdown in his health led him to resign his post on the committee in 1849, but subsequent recovery enabled him to take an active part in the working of the central relief committee instituted under Lord Derby, during the Lancashire cotton famine of 1861-1865. He was created a baronet in 1849. Until the end of his life he interested himself in the movements of the Liberal party in Lancashire, and the progress of education. He died in London on the 26th of May 1877. His Physiology, Pathology and Treatment of Asphyxia became a standard textbook, and he also wrote numerous papers on public education. His son, Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth (b. 1844), became a well-known Liberal politician, sitting in parliament for Hastings from 1869 to 188o and for the Clitheroe division of Lancashire from 1885 till 1902, when he was created Baron Shuttleworth. He was chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1886, and secretary to the Admiralty in 1892-1895.

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