KAZAR , a
See also:government of
See also:middle Russia, surrounded by the governments of Vyatka,
See also:Simbirsk, Nizhniy-Novgorod and
See also:Kostroma .
See also:Area 24,601 sq. m . It belongs to the basins of the
See also:Volga and its tributary the
See also:Kama, and by these streams the government is divided into three regions; the first, to the right of the
See also:river, is traversed by deep ravines sloping to the
See also:north-east, towards the Volga, and by two ranges of hills, one of which (300 to 500 ft.) skirts the river; the second region, between the
See also:bank of the Volga and the left bank of the Kama, is an open steppe; and the third, between the left bank of the Volga and the right bank of the Kama, resembles in its eastern
See also:part the first region, and in its western part is covered with
See also:forest . Marls, limestones and sandstones, of
See also:Permian or Triassic age, are the
See also:principal rocks; the
See also:Jurassic formation appears in a small part of the Tetyushi
See also:district in the south; and
See also:Tertiary rocks stretch along the left bank of the Volga .
See also:Mineral springs (iron,
See also:sulphur and petroleum) exist in several places . The Volga is navigable throughout its course of 200 m. through Kazan, as well as the Kama (120 M.); and the Vyatka, Kazanka, Rutka, Tsivyl, Greater Kokshaga, Ilet, Vetluga and Mesha, are not without value as waterways . About four
See also:hundred small lakes are enumerated within the government; the upper and
See also:lower Kaban supply the city of Kazan with
See also:water . The
See also:climate is severe, the
See also:annual mean temperature being 37.8° F . The rainfall amounts to 16 in .
See also:Agriculture is the chief occupation, and 82 % of the population are peasants . Out of 7,672,600 acres of arable
See also:land, 4,516,500 are under crops—chiefly
See also:rye and oats, with some wheat,
See also:buckwheat, lentils,
See also:hemp and potatoes . But there generally results
See also:great scarcity, and even
See also:famine, in
See also:bad years .
Live stock are numerous . Forestscover 35% of the
See also:total area . Bee-keeping is an important
See also:industry . Factories employ about 10,000 persons and include
See also:flour-mills, distilleries, factories for
See also:soap, candles and
See also:tallow, and tanneries . A great variety of
See also:petty trades, especially those connected with
See also:wood, are carried on in the villages, partly for export . The fairs are well attended . There is considerable
See also:shipping on the Volga, Kama, Vyatka and their tributaries . Kazan is divided into twelve districts . The chief
See also:town is Kazan (q.v.) . The district capitals, with their populations in 1897 are: Cheboksary (4568), Chistopol (20,161), Kozmodemyansk (52,2), Laishev (5439) Mamadyzh (4213), Spask (2779), Sviyazhsk (2363), Tetyushi (4754), Tsarevokokshaisk (1654), Tsivylsk (2337) and Yadrin (2467) . Population (1879), 1872,437; (1897), 2,190,185, of whom 1,113,555 were
See also:women, and 176,396 lived in towns . The estimated population in 1906 was 2.504,400 .
It consists principally of Russians andTatars, with a variety of Finno-
See also:Turkish tribes:
See also:Mordvinians, Votyaks, Mescheryaks, and some Jews and Poles . The Russians belong to the Orthodox Greek
See also:Church or are Nonconformists; the Tatars are Mussulmans; and the Finno-Turkish tribes are either pagans or belong officially to the Orthodox Greek Church, the respective proportions being (in 1897) : Orthodox Greek, 69.4% of the whole; Nonconformists, 1%; Mussulmans, 28.8% . (P . A . K.; J . T .
KAZALA, or KAZALINSK
KAZAR (called by the Cheremisses Ozon)
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