KENG TUNG , the most extensive of the Shan States in theprovince of
See also:Burma . It is in the
See also:southern Shan States'
See also:charge and lies almost entirely east of the
See also:river . The
See also:area of the state is rather over 12,000 sq. m . It is bounded N. by the states of
See also:Mang Lon, Mong Lem and Keng Hung (Hsip Hsawng
See also:Panna), the two latter under
See also:control; E. by the Mekong river, on the farther side of which is French Lao territory; S. by the Siamese Shan States, and W. in a general way by the Salween river, though it overlaps it in some places . The state is known to the Chinese as Meng Keng, and was frequently called by the Burmese " the 32 cities of the Gan " (Hkon) . Keng Tung has
See also:expanded very considerably since the
See also:establishment of
See also:British control, by the inclusion of the districts of Hsen Yawt, Hsen Mawng, Mong Hsat, Mong Pu, and the cis-Mekong portions of Keng
See also:Cheng, which in Burmese times were
See also:separate charges . The " classical " name of the state is Khemarata or Khemarata Tungkapuri . About 63% of the area lies in the
See also:basin of the Mekong river and 37% in the Salween drainage area . The
See also:watershed is a high and generally continuous range . Some of its peaks rise to over 7000 ft., and the
See also:elevation is nowhere much below 5000 ft . Parallel to this successive
See also:hill ranges run
See also:north and south . Mountainous
See also:country so greatly predominates that the scattered valleys are but as islands in a
See also:sea of rugged hills .
See also:rivers, tributaries of the Salween, are the Nam Hka, the Hwe Long, Nam Pu, and the Nam Hsim . The first and last are very considerable rivers . The Nam Hka rises in the Wa or Vu states, the Nam Hsim on the watershed range in the centre of the state . Rocks and rapids make both unnavigable, but much
See also:timber goes down the Nam Hsim . The
See also:part of both rivers forms the boundary of Keng Tung state . The chief tributaries of the Mekong are the Nam Nga, the Nam Lwe, the Nam Yawng, Nam Lin, Nam Hok and Nam K6k . Of these the chief is the Nam Lwe, which is navigable in the interior of the state, but enters the Mekong by a
See also:gorge broken up by rocks . The Nam Lin and the Nam K6k are also considerable streams . The lower course of the latter passes by Chieng Rai in Siamese territory . The lower Nam Hok or Me Huak forms the boundary with Siam . The existence of minerals was reported by the sawbwa, or chief, to
See also:Garnier in 1867, but none is worked or located . Gold is washed in most of the streams .
See also:Teak forests exist in Mong Pu and Mong Hsat, and the sawbwa
See also:works them as
See also:con-tracts . One-third of the price realized from the sale of the logs at
See also:Moulmein is retained as the government
See also:royalty . There are teak forests also in the Mekong drainage area in the south of the state, but there is only a
See also:local market for the timber .
See also:Rice, as elsewhere in the Shan States, is the chief
See also:crop . Next to it is
See also:cane, grown both as a
See also:field crop and in gardens .
See also:Earth-nuts and
See also:tobacco are the only other field crops in the valleys . On the halls, besides rice,
See also:poppy and
See also:tea are the chief crops . The tea is carelessly grown, badly prepared, and only consumed locally . A
See also:deal of
See also:pro-duce is raised in the valleys, especially near the capital . The state is
See also:rich in
See also:cattle, and exports them to the country west of the Salween . Cotton and opium are exported in large quantities, the former entirely to
See also:China, a
See also:good deal of the latter to
See also:northern Siam, which also takes shoes and sandals . Tea is carried through westwards from Keng Hung, and
See also:silk from the Siamese Shan States .
Cotton and silk
See also:weaving are dying out as
See also:industries . Large quantities of shoes and sandals are made of
See also:buffalo and
See also:bullock hide, with Chinese
See also:felt uppers and soft iron hobnails . There is a good deal of pottery
See also:work . The chief work in iron is the manufacture of guns, which has been carried on for many years in certain villages of the Sam Tao
See also:district . The
See also:gun barrels and springs are
See also:rude but effective, though not very durable . The revenue of the state is collected as the Burmese thathameda, a rude
See also:system of income-tax . From 189o, when the state made its submission, the
See also:annual tributary offerings made in Burmese times were continued to the British government, but in 1894 these offerings were converted into tribute . For the quinquennial
See also:period 1903–1908 the state paid Rs . 30,000 (£2000) annually . The population of the state was enumerated for the first
See also:time in
See also:castle and grounds, and here in
See also:July 1575 he entertained
See also:Elizabeth at " excessive cost," as described in
See also:Kenilworth . On the queen's first entry " a small floating
See also:island illuminated by a great variety of torches . . . made its appearance upon the lake," upon which, clad in silks, were the
See also:Lady of the Lake and two
See also:nymphs waiting on her, and for the several days of her stay " rare shews and sports were there exercised." During the
See also:wars the castle was dismantled by the soldiers of
See also:Cromwell and was from that time abandoned to decay .
The only mention of Kenilworth as a
See also:borough occurs in a
See also:charter of
See also:Henry I. to Geoffrey de
See also:Clinton and in the charters of Henry I. and Henry II. to the
See also:church of St Mary of Kenilworth confirming the
See also:grant of lands made by Geoffrey to this church, and mentioning that he kept the
See also:land in which his castle was situated and also land for making his borough,
See also:park and fishpond . The
See also:town possesses large tanneries .
EDWARD VAUGHAN HYDE KENEALY (1819–188o)
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