KENYA , a
See also:great volcanic
See also:mountain in
See also:British East Africa, situated just south of the equator in 370 20' E . It is one of the highest mountains of Africa, its highest
See also:peak reaching an altitude of 17,007 ft . (with a possible error of 30 ft. either way) . The central core, which consists of several steep pyramids, is that of a very denuded old
See also:volcano, which when its
See also:crater was
See also:complete may have reached 2000 ft. above the
See also:summit . Lavas dip in all directions from the central crystalline core, pointing to the conclusion that the
See also:main portion of the mountain represents a single volcanic mass . From the central peaks, of whichthe
See also:axis runs from W.N.W. to S.S.E., ridges radiate outwards, separated by broad valleys, ending upwards in vast cirques . The most important ridges centre in the peak Lenana (16,300 ft.) . at the eastern end of the central
See also:group, and through it runs. the chief
See also:water-parting of the mountain, in a generally
See also:north to south, direction . Three main valleys, known respectively as Hinde, Gorges and Hobley valleys, run down from this to the east, and four—Mackinder, Hausberg, Teleki and Hohnei—to the west . From the central peaks fifteen glaciers, all lying west of the main
See also:divide, descend to the north and south, the two largest being the
See also:Lewis and
See also:Gregory glaciers, each about 1 in. long, which, with the smaller Kolb glacier, lie immediately west of the maindivide . Most of the glaciers terminate at an altitude of 14,800–14,900 ft., but the small Cesar glacier, drained to, the Hausberg, valley, reaches to 14,450 . Glaciation was formerly much more extensive, old moraines being observed down to 12,000 ft .
In the upper parts of the valleys a number of lakes occur, occupying hollows and
See also:rock basins in the agglomerates and ashes, fed by springs, and feeding many of the streams that drain the mountain slopes . The largest of these are LakeHohnei, lying at an altitude of 14,000 ft., at the
See also:head of the valley of the same name, and measuring 600 by 400 yds..; and Lake Michaelson (12,700 ft.?) in the Gorges; Valley . At a distance from the central core the radiating ridges become less abrupt and descend with a gentle gradient, finally passing somewhat abruptly, at a height of some 7000 ft., into the level
See also:plateau . These
See also:outer slopes are clothed with dense
See also:forest and
See also:jungle, composed chiefly of junipers and Podocarpus, and' between 8000 and 9800 ft. of huge bamboos . The forest zone extends to about 10,500 ft., above which is the steeper alpine zone, in which pasturages alternate with rocks and crags . This extends to- a general height of about 15,000 ft., but in
See also:damp, sheltered valleys the pasturages extend some distance higher . The only trees or shrubs in this zone are the
See also:giant Senecio (groundsel) and
See also:Lobelia, and
See also:tree-heaths, the Senecio forming groves in the upper valleys . Of the
See also:fauna of the
See also:lower slopes, tracks of
See also:leopard and
See also:buffalo have been seen, between 11,500 and 14,500 ft . That of the alpine zone includes two
See also:species of dassy ( Procavia) , a coney (Hyrax); and a
See also:rat (Otomys) The
See also:bird fauna is of considerable
See also:interest] the finest species of the upper zone being an eagle-
See also:owl, met with at 14,000 ft . At 11,000 ft. was found a
See also:brown chat, with a
See also:deal of
See also:white in the tail . Both the fauna and
See also:flora of the higher levels present close
See also:affinities with those of
See also:Elgon, of other mountains of East Africa and of Cameroon Mountain . The true native names of the mountain are said to be Kilinyaga, Doenyo Ebor (white mountain) and Doenyo Egeri (spotted mountain) .
It was first seen, from;a distance, by the missionaryLudwig Krapf in 1849; approached from the west by
See also:Thomson in 1883; partially ascended by Count S . Teleki (1889), J . W . Gregory (1893) and Georg Kolb (1886); and its summit reached by H . J . Mackinder in 1899 . See J . W . Gregory, The Great Rift-Valley (
See also:London, 1896) H . 'J . Mackinder, "
See also:Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya," Geog . Jndl., May 1900 .
1ST BARON LLOYD KENYON KENYON (1732-1802)
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