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Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 757 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JUSTINUS ANDREAS CHRISTIAN KERNER (1786–1862), German poet and medical writer, was born on the 18th of September 1786 at Ludwigsburg in Wurttemberg. After attending the classical schools of Ludwigsburg and Maulbronn, he was apprenticed in a cloth factory, but, in 1804, owing to the good services of Professor Karl Philipp Conz (1762–1827) of Tubingen, was enabled to enter the university there; he studied medicine but had also time for literary pursuits in the company of Uhland, Gustav Schwab and others. He took his doctor's degree in 1808, spent some time in travel, and then settled as a practising physician in Wildbad. Here he completed his Reiseschatten von dem Schattenspieler Lucks (1811), in which his own experiences are described with caustic humour. He next co-operated with Uhland and Schwab in producing the Poetischer Almanach fur 1812, which was followed by the Deutscher Dichterwald (18x3), and in these some of Kerner's best poems were published. In 1815 he obtained the official appointment of district medical officer (Oberamtsarzt) in Gaildorf, and in 1818 was transferred in it like capacity to Weinsberg, where he spent the rest of his life. His house, the site of which at the foot of the historical Schloss Weibertreu was presented by the municipality to their revered physician, became the Mecca of literary pilgrims. Hospitable welcome was extended to all, from the journeyman artisan to crowned heads. Gustavus IV. of Sweden came thither with a knapsack on his back. The poets Count Christian Friedrich Alexander von Wiirttembr,rg (18or–1844) and Lenau (q.v.) wereconstant guests, and thither came also in 1826 Friederike Hauffe (1801-1829), the daughter of a forester in Prevorst, a somnambulist and clairvoyante, who forms the subject of Kerner's famous work Die Seherin von Prevorst, Eroffnungen caber das inhere Leben des Menschen and caber das Hineinragen einer Geisterwelt in die unsere (1829; 6th ed., 1892). In 1826 he published a collection of Gedichte which were later supplemented by Der letzte Bliitenstrauss (7852) and Winterbluten (1859). Among others of his well-known poems are the charming ballad Der reichsle Furst; a drinking song, Wohlauf, noch getrunken, and the pensive Wanderer in der Sagemuhle. In addition to his literary productions, Kerner wrote some popular medical books of great merit, dealing with animal magnetism, a treatise on the influence of sebacic acid on animal organisms, Das Fettgift oder die Fettsdure and ihre Wirkungen auf den tierischen Organismus (1822); a description of Wildbad and its healing waters, Das Wildbad im Konigreich Wurttemberg. (1813); while he gave a pretty and vivid account of his youthful years in Bilderbuch aus meiner Knabenzeit (1859); and in Die Besturmung der wurttembergischen Stadt Weinsberg im Jahre 1525 (1820), showed considerable skill in historical narrative. In 1851 he was compelled, owing to increasing blindness, to retire from his medical practice, but he lived, carefully tended by his daughters, at Weinsberg until his death on the 21st of February 1862. He was buried beside his wife, who had predeceased him in 1854, in the churchyard of Weinsberg, and the grave is marked by a stone slab with an inscription he himself had chosen: Friederike Kerner and ihr Justinus. Kerner was one of the most inspired poets of the Swabian school. His poeths, which largely deal with natural phenomena, are characterized by a deep melancholy and a leaning towards the supernatural, which, however, is balanced by a quaint humour, reminiscent of the Volkslied. Kerner's Ausgewdhlte poetische Werke appeared in 2 vols. (1878) ; Samtliche poetische Werke, ed. by J. Gaismaier, 4 vols. (1905); a selection of his poems will also be found in Reclam's Universalbibliothek (1898). His correspondence was edited by his son in 1897. See also D. F. Strauss, Kleine Schriften (1866) ; A. Reinhard, J. Kerner and das Kernerhaus zu Weinsberg (1862; 2nd ed., 1886); G. Rumelin, Reden and Aufsatze, vol. iii. (1894); M. Niethammer (Kerner's daughter), J. Kerners Jugendliebe and mein Vaterhaus (1877) ; A. Watts, Life and Works of Kerner (London, 1884) ; T. Kerner, Das Kernerhaus and seine Gdste (1894).
KERNEL (O.E. cyrnel, a diminutive of " corn," seed,...

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