KETTLEDRUM 1 (Fr. timbales; Ger. Pauken; Ital. timpani; Sp. timbal) , the onlykind of
See also:drum (q.v.) having a definite musical pitch . The kettledrum consists of a hemispherical
See also:pan of copper, brass or
See also:silver, over which a piece of vellum is stretched tightly by means of screws working on an iron
See also:ring, which fits closely
See also:round the
See also:head of the drum . In the bottom of the pan is a small vent-hole, which prevents the head being
See also:rent by the concussion of air . The vellum head may thus be slackened or tightened at will to produce any one of the notes within its compass of
See also:half an octave . Each kettledrum gives but one note at a
See also:time, and as it takes some little time to alter all the screws, two or three kettledrums, sometimes more, each tuned to a different note, are used in an orchestra or
See also:band . For centuries kettledrums have been made and used in
See also:Europe in pairs, one large and one small; the relative proportions of the two
See also:instruments being well defined and invariable . Even when eight pairs of drums, all tuned to different notes, are used, as by
See also:Berlioz in his "
See also:Requiem," there are still but the two sizes of drums to produce all the notes . Various mechanisms have been tried with the
See also:object of facilitating the
See also:change of pitch, but the
See also:simple old-fashioned
See also:model is still the most frequently used in England . Two sticks, of which there are several kinds, are employed to
See also:play the kettledrum; the best of these are made of
See also:whalebone for
See also:elasticity, and have a small wooden knob at one end, covered with a thin piece of
See also:fine sponge . Others have the button covered with
See also:felt or india-
See also:rubber . The kettledrum is struck at about a quarter of the diameter from the ring . The compass of kettledrums collectively is not much more than an octave, between ----sna _ the larger instruments, —Th .
which it is inadvisable to tune below F, take any one of the following notes: and the smaller are tuned to one of the notes completing thechromatic and enharmonic scale from = E@7--- These limits comprise all the notes of
See also:artistic value that can be obtained from kettledrums . When there are but two drums—the
See also:term " drum " used by musicians always denotes the kettledrum—they are generally tuned to the tonic and dominant or to the tonic and subdominant, these notes entering into the composition of most of the harmonies of the
See also:key . Formerly the kettledrums used to be treated as transposing instruments, the notation, as for the
See also:horn, being in C, the key to which the kettledrums were to be tuned being indicated in the score . Now composers write the real notes . The
See also:tone of a
See also:good kettledrum is sonorous,
See also:rich, and of
See also:great power . When
See also:noise rather than
See also:music is required uncovered sticks are used . The drums may be muffled or covered by placing a' piece of
See also:cloth or
See also:silk over the vellum to
See also:damp the sound, a
See also:device which produces a lugubrious, mysterious effect and is indicated in the score by the words timpani coperti, timpani
See also:con sordini, timbales couvertes, gedampfte Pauken . Besides the beautiful effects obtained by means of delicate gradations of tone, numerous rhythmical figures may be executed on one, two or more notes . German drummers who were 1 From "drum " and " kettle," a covered
See also:metal vessel for boiling
See also:water or other liquid;• the O . E. word is cetel, cf . Du. ketel, Ger . Kessel, borrowed from
See also:Lat. catillus, dim. of catinus, bowl .
764 renowned during the 17th and 18th centuries, borrowing the terms from the trumpets with which the kettledrums werelong associated, recognized the following beats: Single tonguing (Einfache Zungen) etc=
See also:Double tonguing (Doppel
See also:oder gerissene Zungen) r ~ — Legato tonguing (Tragende Zungen) Whole double-tonguing (Ganze Doppel-Zungen) Double
See also:beat 1 (Doppel Kreuzschkige) The
See also:roll (Wirbel) . etc= The double roll (Doppel Wirbel) _, _ It is generally stated that
See also:Beethoven was the first to treat the kettledrum as a
See also:solo instrument, but in
See also:Dido, an
See also:opera by C . Graupner performed at the
See also:Hamburg Opera
See also:House in 1707, there is a
See also:short solo for the kettledrum ? The tuning of the kettledrum is an operation requiring time, even when the
See also:screw-heads, as is now usual, are T-shaped; to expedite the change, therefore, efforts have been made in all countries to invent some mechanism which would enable the performer to tune the drum to a fixed ,cote by a single
See also:movement . The first
See also:mechanical kettledrums date from the beginning of the 19th century . In
See also:Holland a
See also:system was invented by J . C . N . Stumpff 3; in France by Labbaye in 1827; in Germany Einbigler patented a system in 1 This rhythmical use of kettledrums was characteristic of the military instrument of percussion, rather than the musical member of the orchestra . During the
See also:middle ages and until the end of the 18th century, the two different notes obtainable from the pair of kettledrums were probably used more as a means of marking and varying the rhythm than as musical notes entering into the composition of the harmonies . The kettledrums, in fact, approximated to the side drums in technique . The contrast between the purely rhythmical use of kettledrums, given above, and the more
See also:modern musical use is well exemplified by the well-known solo for four kettledrums in
See also:Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable, beginning thus i,p 2 See Wilhelm Kleefeld, Das Orchester der Hamburger Oper (1678—1738); Internationale Musikgesellschaft, Sammelband i . 2, p .
See also:Leipzig, 1899) . ' See J . Georges Kastner, Methode
See also:complete et raisonnee de timbales (
See also:Paris), p . 19, where several of the early mechanical kettledrums are described and illustrated .
See also:Main in 1836*; in England Cornelius
See also:Ward in 1837; in Italy C . A . Boracchi of
See also:Monza in 1839.6 The
See also:drawback in most of these systems is the complicated nature of the mechanism, which soon gets out of
See also:order, and, being very cumbersome and heavy, it renders the instrument more or less of a fixture .
See also:Potter's kettledrum with instantaneous system of tuning, the best known at the
See also:day in England, and used in some military bands with entire success, is a complete contrast to the above . There is practically no mechanism; the system is simple, ingenious, and neither adds to the
See also:weight nor to the bulk of the instrument . There are no screws round the head of Potter's kettle-drum; an invisible system of cords in the interior, regulated by screws and rods in the
See also:form of a Maltese cross, is worked from the outside by a small handle connected to a
See also:dial, on the
See also:face of which are twenty-eight numbered notches . By means of these the performer is able to tune the drum instantly to any note within the compass by remembering the numbers which correspond to each note and pointing the indicator to it on the face of the dial . Should the cords become slightly stretched, flattening the pitch, causing the representative numbers to change, the performer need only give his indicator an extra turn to bring his instrument back to pitch, each note having several notches at its service .
See also:internal mechanism, being of an elastic nature, has no detrimental effect on the tone but tends to increase its
See also:volume and improve its quality . The origin of the kettledrum is remote and must be sought in the East . Its distinctive characteristic is a hemispherical or
See also:convex vessel, closed by means of a single
See also:parchment or skin
See also:drawn tightly over the aperture, whereas other drums consist of a cylinder, having one end or both covered by the parchment, as in the side-drum and tambourine respectively . The Romans were acquainted with the kettledrum, including it among the tympana; the tympanum leve, like a
See also:sieve, was the tambourine used in the
See also:rites of Bacchus and Cybele.6 The comparatively heavy tympanum of
See also:bronze mentioned by Catullus was probably the small kettledrum which appears in pairs on monuments of the middle ages .7 Pliny8 states that half pearls having one side round and the other
See also:flat were called tympania . If the name tympania (Gr. ruµ1ravov, from zb7rrety, to strike) was given to pearls of a certain shape because they resembled the kettledrum, this argues that the instrument was well known among the Romans . It is doubtful, however, if it was adopted by them as a military instrument, since it is not mentioned by
See also:Vegetius,9 who defines very clearly the duties of the service instruments buccina,
See also:cornu and
See also:lituus . The Greeks also knew the kettledrum, but as a warlike instrument of barbarians . Plutarch '° mentions that the Parthians, in order to frighten their enemies, in offering
See also:battle used not the horn or tuba, but hollow vessels covered with a skin, on which they beat, making a terrifying noise with these tympana . Whether the kettledrum penetrated into western Europe before the fall of the
See also:Empire and continued to be included during the middle ages among the tympana has not been definitely ascertained . Isidore of Seville gives a some-what vague description of tympanum, conveying the impression that his information has been obtained second-
See also:hand: "Tympanum est pellis vel corium ligno ex una parte extentum . Est enim pars
See also:media symphoniae in similitudinem cribri . Tympanum autem dictum quod
See also:medium est .
Unde, et margaritum medium tympanum dicitur, et ipsum ut
See also:symphonia ad virgulam percutitur." 11 It is clear that in this passage Isidore is referring to Pliny . The names given during the middle ages to the kettledrum are derived from the East . We have attambal or attabal in Spain, ' See Gustav Schilling's Encyklopddie der gesammten musikal . Wissenschaften (
See also:Stuttgart, 1840), vol. v.,
See also:art . " Pauke." See Manuale pel Timpanista (Milan, 1842), where Boracchi describes and illustrates his invention . 6 Catullus, lxiii . 8—to; Claud . De cons . Stilich. iii . 365; Lucret. ii . 618; Virg . Aen. ix .
619, &c . 7
See also:Carter, Specimens of
See also:Ancient Sculpture, bas-
See also:relief from seats of
See also:choir of
See also:cathedral and of collegiate
See also:church of St Katherine near the Tower of
See also:London (plates, vol. i. following p . 53 and vol. ii. following p . 22) . 8 Nat . Hist. ix . 3.5, 23 . o De re militari, ii . 22 ; iii . 5, &c . io Crassus,
See also:xxiii . 10 .
See also:Justin xli . 2, and Polydorus,
See also:lib . I, cap. xv . ii See Isidore of Seville, Etymologiarum, Iib. iii. cap . 2I, 141;
See also:Migne, Pair. curs. completus, lxxxii, 167 . from the Persian tambal, whence is derived the modern French timbales; nacaire, naquaire or nakeres (
See also:English spelling), from the Arabic nakkarah or noggarich (
See also:Bengali, nagard), and the German Pauke, M.H.G . Bike or Puke, which is probably derived from byk, the
See also:Assyrian name of the instrument . A
See also:line in the
See also:chronicles of
See also:Joinville definitely establishes the identity of the nakeres as a kind of drum: " Lor it fist sonner (Geo . Potter & Co. of
See also:Aldershot.) of cords inside the head . This regiment is now the 21st (Empress of India) Lancers .
See also:les tabours que l'on appelle nacaires." The nacaire is among the instruments mentioned by
See also:Froissart as having been used on the occasion of
See also:Edward III.'s triumphal entry into
See also:Calais in 1347: " trompes, tambours, nacaires, chalemies, muses." 1
See also:Chaucer mentions them in the description of the
See also:tournament in the Knight's
See also:Tale (line 2514): " Pipes, trompes, nakeres and clarionnes The earliest
See also:illustration showing kettledrums is the scene depicting
See also:Pharaoh's banquet in the fine illuminated MS.
See also:book of
See also:Genesis of the 5th or 6th century, preserved in Vienna . There are two pairs of shallow metal
See also:bowls on a table, on which a woman is performing with two sticks, as an accompaniment to the double pipes.2 As a
See also:illumination may be cited the picture of an Eastern banquet given in a 14th century MS. at the
See also:British Museum (Add .
MS . 27,695), illuminated by a skilled Genoese . The potentate is enjoying the music of various instruments, among which are two kettledrums strapped to the back of a Nubian slave . This was the earlier manner of usingthe instrument before it became inseparably associated with the
See also:trumpet, sharing its position as the service instrument of the
See also:cavalry .
See also:Jost Amman 3 gives a picture of a pair of kettledrums with banners being played by an armed knight on horseback . (From Hertel u . Wickhoff's "Die all ienerhGen esms"hahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Fig . 2.—Kettledrums in an early Christian MS . As in the case of the trumpet, the use of the kettledrum was placed under great restrictions in Germany and France and to some extent in England, but it was used in churches with the trumpet.' No French or German regiment was allowed Fig . 3.—Medieval Kettledrums, 14th century . (Brit . Museum.) kettledrums unless they had been captured from the enemy, and the timbalier or the Heerpauker on
See also:parade, in reviews and
See also:marches generally, rode at the head of the
See also:squadron; in battle his position was in the wings .
In England, before the Restoration, only the
See also:Guards were allowed kettledrums, but after the accession of
See also:James II. every regiment of
See also:horse was provided with them.5 Before the Royal Regiment of
See also:Artillery was established, the
See also:master-general of
See also:ordnance was responsible for the raising of trains of artillery . Among his retinue in time of war were a
See also:trumpeter and kettledrummer . The kettledrums were mounted on a chariot drawn by six
See also:white horses . They appeared in the
See also:field for the first time in a
See also:train of artillery during the Irish
See also:rebellion of 1689, and the charges for ordnance That in the bataille blowen blody sonnes.,, 'A 1
See also:Pantheon litteraire (Paris, 1837), J . A .
See also:Buchon, vol. i . cap . 322, 3 Artliche u. kunstreiche Figuren zu der Reutterey (Frankfort-on-Main, 1584) . ' See Michael
See also:Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum and Monatshefte f. p . 273 . Musikgeschichte, Jahrgang x . 51 .
2 Reproduced by
See also:Franz Wickhoff, " Die Wiener Genesis," supple- 5 See Georges Kastner, op. cit., pp. lo and I I ; Johann
See also:Ernst Altenment to the 15th and 16th volumes of the Jahrb. d. kunsthistorischen
See also:burg, Versuch einer Anleitung z. heroisch-musikalischen Trompeter u . Sammlungen d allerhochsten Kaiserhauses (Vienna, 1895); see frontis- Paukerkunst (
See also:Halle, 1795), p . 128; and H . G .
See also:Memoirs of piece in
See also:colours and
See also:plate illustration XXXIV. the Royal Artillery Band p . 23, note I (London, 1904) . include the item, " large kettledrums mounted on a
See also:carriage with cloaths marked I.R. and cost £158, 9s." 1 A model of the kettledrums with their carriage which accompanied the duke of
See also:Marlborough to Holland in 1702 is preserved in the Rotunda Museum at
See also:Woolwich . The kettledrums accompanied the Royal Artillery train in the
See also:Vigo expedition and during the
See also:campaign in
See also:Flanders in 1748 . Macbean2 states that they were mounted on a triumphal
See also:car ornamented and gilt, bearing the ordnance
See also:flag and drawn by six white horses . The position of the car on
See also:march was in front of the flag
See also:gun, and in
See also:camp in front of the quarters of the duke of
See also:Cumberland with the artillery guns packed round them . The kettledrummer had by order " to
See also:mount the kettledrum carriage every
See also:night half an
See also:hour before the
See also:sun sett and beat till gun fireing." In 1759 the kettledrums ceased to form
See also:part of the
See also:establishment of the Royal Artillery, and they were deposited, together with their carriage, in the Tower, at the same time as a pair captured at
See also:Malplaquet in 1709 . These Tower drums were frequently borrowed by
See also:Handel for performances of his oratorios .
The kettledrums still form part of the bands of the
See also:Life Guards and other cavalry regiments . (K .
SIR RUPERT ALFRED KETTLE (1817-1894)
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