See also:peculiar and distinguishing characteristics of the
See also:present-age are-in every respect remarkable . Unquestionably an extraordinary and universal-
See also:change has commenced in-the
See also:internal as-well-as-the
See also:external-world—in-the-mindof-man as-well-as-in-the habits of society, the one indeed being-the necessary-consequence of the other . A rational
See also:consideration of the circumstances in-which-mankind are at-present placed mustshow-us that influences of the most-important and wonderful character have-been and are operating in-such-a-manner-as-to bring-about if-not-a reformation, a thorough revolution in-theorganization of society . Never in-the-
See also:world have benevolent and philanthropic institutions for-the
See also:relief of domestic and public affliction;
See also:societies for-the promotion of manufacturing, commercial and agricultural interests; associations for-the instruction of the masses, the
See also:advancement of literature and science, the promotes legibility, and the saving of
See also:time is very considerable . Words written thus should be closely connected in sense and awkward joinings avoided . Such phrases are I am, I have, ,/you are, as-a you may, , it would, Lit would not, c— we are, we have, we have never been, '1.z, my dear
See also:Recent history .
See also:hand writing into Germany in an adaptation of the
See also:Bertin method . Reischl's (1808) is a modification of Mosengeil's . On Horstig's (1797) are based those of an
See also:anonymous writer (
See also:Nuremberg, 1798), Heiin (182o), Thon (1825), an anonymous author (
See also:Tubingen, 1830), Nowack (183o), Ineichen (1831), an anonymous author (
See also:Munich, 1831) and Binder (1855) . Mosengeil published a second
See also:system (1819) in which Horstig's
See also:alphabet is used . On the Mosengeil-Horstig system are based Berthold's (1819) and Stark's (1822) . On Danzer's (1800), a close imitation of Taylor's, is based that of Ellison v .
Nidlef (182o) . Other systems are those of Leichtlen (1819); J . Brede (1827); Nowack (1834), a system in which theellipse is employed as well as the circle; Billharz 1838); Cammerer (1848), a modification of
See also:Selwyn's phonography (1847); Schmitt (185o); Frschback (1857), a
See also:reproduction of Taylor's; and that of an anonymous author (1872), based on Horstig, Mosengeil and Heim . Nowack, in his later method of 1834, makes a new departure in avoiding right or obtuse angles, and in endeavouring to approximate to ordinary writing . This system Gabelsberger considered to be the best which had appeared down to that date . F . X . Gabelsberger's (1789–1849) Anleitung zur deutschen Redezeichenkunst (Munich, 1834) is the most important of the German systems . The author, an official attached to the Bavarian
See also:ministry, commenced his system for private purposes, but was induced to perfect it on account of the summoning of a parliament for
See also:Bavaria in 1819 . Submitted to public examination in 1829, it was pronounced satisfactory, the
See also:report stating that pupils taught on this system executed their trial specimens with the required
See also:speed, and read what they had written, and even what others had written, with ease and certainty . The method is based on modifications of geometrical forms, designed to suit the position of the. hand in ordinary writing . The author considered that a system composed of
See also:simple geometrical strokes forming determinate angles with each other was unadapted to rapid writing .
He does not recognize all the varieties ofsound, and makes some distinctions which are merely orthographical . Soft sounds have small,
See also:light and
See also:round signs, while the hard sounds have large, heavy and straight signs . The signs too are derived from the current alphabet, so that one can find the former contained in the latter . Vowels
See also:standing between consonants are not literally inserted, but symbolically indicated by either position or shape of the surrounding consonants, without, however, leaving the straight writing
See also:line . On Gabelsberger's system is based that of W . Stolze (184o) . Faulmann (Vienna, 1875) attempted in his Phonographie to combine the two methods . While Gabelsberger's system remained unchanged in principle, Stolze's split into two divisions, the old and the new . These contain many smaller factions, e.g . Velten's (1876) and
See also:Adler's (1877) . Arends's (186o) is copied from the French system of Fayet .
See also:Roller's (1874) and Lehmann's (1875) are offshoots of
See also:Leopold Arends's (1817–1882) .
Many other methods have appeared and as rapidly been forgotten . The
See also:schools of Gabelsberger and Stolze can boast of a very extensive shorthand literature . Gabelsberger's system was adapted to
See also:English by A . Geiger (
See also:Dresden, 1860 and 1873), who adhered too closely to the German
See also:original, and more successfully by H .
See also:Richter (
See also:London, 1886), and Stolze's by G .
See also:Michaelis (Berlin, 1863) . French.—The earliest French system worthy of
See also:notice is that of Coulon de Thevenot (1777), in which the vowels are disjoined from the consonants . Later may be divided into two classes, those derived from Taylor's English system, translated in 1791 by T . P . Bertin, and those invented in France . The latter are (a) Coulon de Thevenot's; (b) systems founded on the principle of the inclination of the usual writing—the best known being those of Fayet (1832) and Senocq (1842); and (c) systems derived from the method of Conen de Prepean (5
See also:editions from 1813 to 1833) .
See also:Prevost, who till 187o directed the stenographic service of the
See also:senate, produced the best modification of Taylor .
Many authors have copied and spoilt this system of Prevost . The best known are Plantier (1844) and Tondeur (1849) . On Conen's are based those of Aime-
See also:Paris (1822), Cadres-Marmet (1828), Potel (1842), the Duploye
See also:brothers (1868), Guenin, &c . Among
See also:amateur writers the Duployan method is best known .
See also:father of Spanish stenography was Don Francisco de Paula
See also:Marti, whose system was first published in 1803 . The alphabet is a combination of Taylor's and Coulon's . By decree of
See also:November 21, 1802, a public professorship of shorthand was founded in
See also:Madrid, Marti being the first
See also:professor . Founded on Marti's system are those of Serra y Ginesta (1816) and Xamarillo (1811) . Many Spanish systems are merely imitations or reproductions of Marti's, and adaptations of Gabelsberger's, Stolze's and
See also:Pitman's systems . That of Garriga y Maril (1863) has attained some popularity in Spain .
See also:translations and adaptations of Taylor's system succeeded one another in considerable numbers from Amanti (1809) to
See also:Bianchini (1871) . Delpino's (1819) is the best .
The Gabelsberger-Noe system (1863) has gained many followers . Dutch.—J . Reijner's Dutch method (1673) was an adaptation of
See also:Shelton's, and Bussuijt's (1814) of Conen's system . Sommerhausen and Bossaert (1829) received prizes from the
See also:government for their productions . Cornelis Steger (1867) translated Taylor's
See also:work . Gabelsberger's system was transferred to Dutch by Rietstap (1869), and Stolze's by Reinbold (1881) . Adaptations of Gabelsberger's method have also come into use in other countries .
See also:Indian.—Mirza Habib Hosain, at the
See also:Mahommedan Educational
See also:Conference of 1905 in India, introduced a system of
See also:Urdu and Hindi shorthand, called " Habib's Samia," for which he was awarded a gold medal . The Pitman system has also been adapted for some Indian
See also:languages . schreibekunst (Dresden, 1878) contains a
See also:sketch of the use of shorthand in
See also:ancient and
See also:modern times (especially in Germany), a full bibliography of shorthand literature in all languages, a number of lithographed specimens, and a useful
See also:index . Circulars of In-formation of the Bureau of
See also:Education, No . 2, 1884 (
See also:Washington, 1885), by J .
E . Rockwell, contains a very
See also:complete and accurate bibliography of English and
See also:American shorthand publications, a
See also:list of 483 English and American shorthand authors, notices on shorthand in the
See also:United States, on the employment of stenographers in the American courts, on American shorthand societies and magazines, and a beautifully engraved
See also:sheet of 112 shorthand alphabets . Isaac Pitman's History of Shorthand (reprinted in the Phonetic Journal of 1884) reviews the
See also:principal English systems previous to phonography, and a few
See also:foreign ones . The author draws largely on J . H .
See also:Lewis's Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of Stenography (London, 1816) . Other histories of shorthand are by F . X . Gabelsberger (prefixed to his Anleitung zur deutschen Redezeichenkunst, Munich, 1834), A .
See also:Fosse (prefixed to his Cours theorique et pratique de stenographie, Paris, 1849),
See also:Scott de Martinville (Paris, 1849), M .
See also:Levy (London, 1862) and T .
See also:Anderson (London, 1882) .
Here too should be mentioned J . Heger's Bemerkenswerthes fiberdie Stenographic (Vienna, 1841), mainly historical; J . Anders's Entwurf einer allgemeinen Gesch. u . Lit. d . Stenographie (Coeslin, 1855) ; R . Fischer's Die Stenographie nach Geschichte, Wesen, u . Bedeutung (
See also:Leipzig, 1860) ; Krieg's Katechismus der Stenographie (Leipzig, 1876); Dr Westby-
See also:Gibson's Early Shorthand Systems (London, 1882); T . Anderson's Shorthand Systems, with a number of specimens (London, 1884) ; T . A .
See also:Reed's Reporter's
See also:Guide (London, 1885), and Leaves from the Notebook of T . A . Reed (London, 1885) .
Mr C . Walford's StatisticalReview of the Literature of
See also:Short-hand (London, 1885) contains valuable information on the circulation of shorthand books and on shorthand
See also:libraries . Among later publications dealing fully with the history and practice of shorthand are the Transactions of the London Congress in 1887, and similar publications in connexion with later congresses; Bibliography of Shorthand, by J . Westby-Gibson, LL.D . (London, 1887), treating of English, colonial and American authors; Shorthand Instruction and Practice, by J . E . Rockwell, of the United States Bureau of Education (Washington, 1893), dealing with shorthand work throughout the world; and Examen critique
See also:des stenographies franfaises et etrangkres, by Dr
See also:Thierry-Mieg (
See also:Versailles, 1900) .
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