See also:ibn Seyyid Mahommed) (1846-1899), successor of the
See also:mandi Mahommed Ahmed,
See also:born in 1846 in the south-western portion of
See also:Darfur, was a member of the Taaisha section of the
See also:Baggara or
See also:Arabs . His
See also:father, Mahommed et Taki, had determined to emigrate to
See also:Mecca with his
See also:family; but the unsettled state of the
See also:country long prevented him, and he died in Africa after advising his eldest son, Abdullah, to take
See also:refuge with some religious
See also:sheikh on the Nile, and to proceed to Mecca on a favourable opportunity . Abdullah, who had already had much connexion with slave-hunters, and had fought against the
See also:conquest of Darfur, departed for the Nile valley with this purpose;
See also:hearing on the way of the disputes of Mahommed Ahmed, who had not yet claimed a sacred character, with the Egyptian officials, he went to him in spite of
See also:great difficulties,
See also:KHAMSIN and, according to his own statement, at once recognized in him the mandi ("
See also:guide ") divinely appointed to regenerate
See also:Islam in the latter days . His advice to Mahommed to stir up revolt in Darfur and
See also:Kordofan being justified by the result, he became his most trusted counsellor, and was soon declared
See also:khalifa or vicegerent of the mandi, all of whose acts were to be regarded as the mandi's own . The mandi on his deathbed (1885) solemnly named him his successor; and for thirteen years Abdullah ruled over what had been the Egyptian Sudan .
See also:Khartum was deserted by his orders, and
See also:Omdurman, at first intended as a temporary
See also:camp, was made his capital . At length the progress of
See also:Herbert (afterwards
See also:Lord) Kitchener's expedition compelled him to give
See also:battle to the Anglo-Egyptian forces near Omdurman, where on the 2nd of
See also:September 1898 his army, fighting with desperate courage, was almost annihilated . The khalifa, who had not
See also:left Omdurman since the
See also:death of the mandi, fled to Kordofan with the remnant of his
See also:host . On the 25th of
See also:November 1899 he gave battle to a force under Colonel (afterwards General Sir) F . R . Wingate, and was slain at Om Debreikat .
He met death with great fortitude, refusing tofly, and his principal amirs voluntarily perished with him . The khalifa was a man of iron will and great energy, and possessed some military skill . By nature tyrannical, he was impatient of all opposition and appeared to delight in cruelty . It must be remembered, however, that he had to meet the secret or open hostility of all the tribes of the Nile valley and that his authority was dependent on his ability to overawe his opponents . He maintained in public the divine character of the power he inherited from the mandi and inspired his followers to perform prodigies of valour . Although he treated many of his
See also:European captives with terrible severity he never had any of them executed . It is said that their presence in Omdurman ministered to his vanity—one of the most marked features of his character . In private
See also:life he showed much affection for his family .
See also:Personal sketches of the khalifa are given in
See also:Fire and Sword in the Sudan (
See also:London, 1896), and in Father Ohrwalder's Ten Years in the Mandi's Camp (London, 1892) . See also Sir F . R . Wingate's Mandiism and the Egyptian Sudan (London, 1891) .
KHAKI (from Urdu khak, dust)
KHALIL IBN AHMAD [ABU `ABDURRAH*,2AN UL-KHALIL IBN ...
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