KHORSABAD , a
See also:village in the vilayet of
See also:Mosul, 122 M . N.E. of that
See also:town, and almost 20 M . N. of
See also:Nineveh, on the
See also:bank of the little
See also:river Kosar . Here, in 1843, P . E . Botta, then French
See also:consul at Mosul, discovered the re-mains of an
See also:Assyrian palace and town, at which excavations were conducted by him and Flandin in 1843–1844, and again by Victor Place in 1851-1855 . The ruins proved to be those of the town of Dur-Sharrukin, "
See also:Castle," built by Sargon,
See also:king of
See also:Assyria, as a royal residence . The town, in the shape of a rectangular parallelogram, with the corners pointing approximately toward the
See also:cardinal points of the compass, covered 741 acres of ground . On the
See also:north-west side,
See also:half within and half without the circuit of the walls, protruding into the plain like a
See also:great bastion, stood the royal palace, on a terrace, 45 ft. in height, covering about 25 acres . The palace proper was divided into three sections, built around three sides of a large
See also:court on the south-east or city side, into which opened the great
See also:gates, guarded by winged
See also:stone bulls, each section containing suites of rooms built around several smaller inner courts . In the centre was the serai, occupied by the king and his retinue, with an extension towards the north, opening on a large inner court, containing the public reception rooms, elaborately decorated with sculptures and
See also:historical inscriptions, representing scenes of
See also:hunting, worship, feasts, battles, and the like . The
See also:harem, with
See also:separate provisions for four wives, occupied the south corner, the domestic quarters, including stables,
See also:kitchen, bakery,
See also:wine cellar, &c., being at the east corner, to the north-east of the great entrance court .
In the west corner stood a
See also:temple, with a stage-tower (ziggurat) adjoining . The walls of the rooms, which stood only to the height of one storey, were from 9 to 25 ft. in thickness, of
See also:clay, faced with
See also:brick, in the reception rooms wainscoted with stone slabs or tiles, elsewhere plastered, or, in the harem, adorned with
See also:fresco paintings and arabesques . Here and there the floors were formed of tiles or alabaster blocks, but in general they were of stamped clay, on which were spread at the
See also:time of occupancy mats and rugs . The exterior of the palace
See also:wall exhibited a
See also:system of groups of half columns and stepped recesses, an
See also:familiar in Babylonian architecture . The palace and city were completed in 707 B.C., and in 706 Sargon took up his residence there . He died the following
See also:year, and palace and city seem to have been abandoned shortly thereafter . Up to 1909 this was the only Assyrian palace which had ever been explored systematically, in its entirety, and fortunately it was found on the whole in an admirable state of preservation . An immense number of statues and bas-reliefs, excavated by Botta, were transported to
See also:Paris, and formed the first Assyrian museum opened to the
See also:world . The
See also:objects excavated by Place, together with the objects found by
See also:Fresnel's expedition in Babylonia and a
See also:part of the results of
See also:Rawlinson's excavations at Nineveh, were unfortunately lost in the
See also:Tigris, on transport from
See also:Bagdad to Basra . Flandin had, however, made careful drawings and copies of all objects of importance from Khorsabad . The whole material was published by the French
See also:government in two monumental publications . See P .
E . Botta and E . Flandin,
See also:Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849-185o ; 5 vols . 400 plates) ; Victor Place, Ninive et l'Assyrie, avec
See also:des essais de restauration
See also:par F .
See also:Thomas (Paris, 1866—1869 ; 3 vols.) . (J . P .
KHOTAN (locally ILcm)
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