KIAKHTA , a
See also:town of
See also:Siberia, one of the chief centres of
See also:trade between Russia and
See also:China, on the Kiakhta, an affluent of the Selenga, and on an elevated plain surrounded by mountains, in the
See also:government of Transbaikalia, 320 M . S.W. of
See also:Chita, the capital, and close to the
See also:Chinese frontier, in 50° 20' N., zoo° 40' E . Besides the
See also:lower town or Kiakhta proper, the municipal jurisdiction comprises the fortified upper town of Troitskosaysk, about 2 m . N., and the settlement of Ust-Kiakhta, zo m. farther distant . The lower town stands directly opposite to the Chinese emporium of Maimachin, is surrounded by walls, and consists principally of one broad street and a large
See also:exchange courtyard . From 1689 to 1727 the trade of Kiakhta was a government
See also:monopoly, but in the latter
See also:year it was thrown open to private merchants, and continued to improve until 186o, when the right of commercial intercourse was extended along the whole Russian-Chinese frontier . The
See also:December fairs for which Kiakhta was formerly famous, and also the
See also:traffic passing through the town, have considerably fallen off. since that date . The Russians exchange here
See also:leather, sheepskins, furs, horns, woollen cloths, coarse linens and
See also:cattle for teas (in value 95% of the entire imports),
See also:rhubarb, manufactured silks, nankeens and other Chinese produce . The population, including Ust-Kiakhta (5000) and Troitskosaysk (9213 in 1897), is nearly 20,000 . KIANG-SI, an eastern province of China, bounded N. by Hu-peh and Ngan-hui, S. by Kwang-tung, E. by Fu-kien, and W. by Hu-nan . It has an
See also:area of 72,176 sq. m., and a population returned at 22,000,000 . It is divided into fourteen prefectures .
The provincial capital is Nan-ch'ang Fu, on the Kan Kiang, about 35 M. from the Po-yangLake . The whole province is traversed in a south-
See also:westerly and
See also:north-easterly direction by the Nan-shan ranges . The largest
See also:river is the Kan Kiang, which rises in the mountains in the south of the province and flows north-east to the Po-yang Lake . It was over the Meiling Pass and down this river that, in old days, embassies landing at
See also:Canton proceeded to
See also:Peking . During the summer
See also:time it has
See also:water of sufficient
See also:depth for steamers of
See also:light draft as far as Nan-ch'ang, and it is navigable by native craft for a considerable distance beyond that city . Another river of note is the Chang Kiang, which has its source in the province of Ngan-hui and flows into the Po-yang Lake, connecting in its course the Wuyuen
See also:district, whence come the celebrated " Moyune "
See also:green teas, and the city of
See also:King-te-then, celebrated for its pottery, with Jao-chow Fu on the lake . The black " Kaisow " teas are brought from the Ho-kow district, where they are grown, down the river
See also:Kin to Juy-hung on the lake, and the Siu-ho connects by a navigable stream I-ning Chow, in the neighbourhood of which city the best black teas of this
See also:part of China are produced, with Wu-thing, the
See also:principal mart of trade on the lake . The principal products of the province are
See also:tea, China
See also:ware, grass-
See also:hemp, paper,
See also:tobacco and
See also:tallow . Kiu-kiang, the treaty
See also:port of the province, opened to
See also:foreign trade in 1861, is on the Yangtsze-kiang, a
See also:short distance above the junction of the Po-yang Lake with that river . KIANG-SU, a maritime province of China, bounded N. by Shan-tung, S. by Cheh-kiang, W. by Ngan-hui, and E. by the
See also:sea . It has an area of 45,000 sq. m., and a population estimated at 21,000,000 . Kiang-su forms part of the
See also:great plain of
See also:northern China .
There are no mountains within its limits, and few hills . It is watered as no other province in China is watered . The
See also:Grand Canal runs through it from south to north; the Yangtszekiang crosses its
See also:southern portion from west to east; it possesses several lakes, of which the T'ai-hu is the most noteworthy, and numberless streams connect the canal with the sea . Its
See also:coast is studded with low islands and sandbanks, the results of the deposits brought down by the Hwang-ho . Kiang-su is
See also:rich in places of
See also:interest .
See also:Nanking, " the Southern Capital," was the seat of the Chinese
See also:court until the beginning of the 15th century, and it was the headquarters of the T'ai-p'
See also:ing rebels from 1853, when they took the city by assault, to 1864, when its garrison yielded to Colonel
See also:Gordon's army . Hang-chow Fu and Su-chow . Fu, situated on the T'ai-hu, are reckoned the most beautiful cities in China . " Above there is
See also:Paradise, below are Su and Hang," says a Chinese
See also:proverb . Shang-
See also:hai is the chief port in the province . In 1909 it was connected by railway (270 M. long) via Su-Chow and
See also:Chin-kiang with Nanking . Tea and
See also:silk are the principal articles of commerce produced in Kiang-su, and next in importance are
See also:sugar and medicines .
The silk manufactured in the looms of Su-chow is famous all over the
See also:empire . In the mountains near Nanking,
See also:plumbago, iron ore and marble are found . Shang-hai, Chin-kiang, Nanking and Su-chow are the treaty ports of the province .
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