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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 925 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FREIHERR PAUL KRAY VON KRAJOVA (1735–1804), Austrian soldier. Entering the Austrian army at the age of nineteen, he arrived somewhat rapidly at the grade of major, but it was many years before he had any opportunity of distinguishing himself. In 1784 he suppressed a rising in Transylvania, and in the Turkish wars he took an active part at Porczeny and the Vulcan Pass. Made major-general in 1790, three years later he commanded the advanced guard of the Allies operating in France. He distinguished himself at Famars, Charleroi, Fleurus, Weissenberg,4and indeed at almost every encounter with the troops of the French Republic. In the celebrated campaign of 1796 on the Rhine and Danube he did conspicuous service as a corps commander. At Wetzlar he defeated Kleber, and at Amberg and Wifrzburg he was largely responsible for the victory of the archduke Charles. In the following year he was less successful, being twice defeated on the Lahn and the Main. bray commanded in Italy in 1799, and reconquered from the French the plain of Lombardy. For his victories of Verona, Mantua, Legnago and Magnano he was promoted Feldzeugmeister, and he ended the campaign by further victories at Novi and Fossano. Next year he commanded on the Rhine against Moreau. (For the events of this memorable campaign see FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS.) As a consequence of the defeats he underwent at Biberach, Messkirch, &c., Kray was driven into Ulm, but by a skilful march round Moreau's flank succeeded in escaping to Bohemia. He was relieved of his command by the Austrian government, and passed his remaining years in retirement. He died in 1804. Kray was one of the best representatives of the old Austrian army. Tied to an obsolete system and unable from habit to realize the changed conditions of warfare, he failed, but his enemies held him in the highest respect as a brave, skilful and chivalrous opponent. It was he who at Altenkirchen cared for the dying Marceau, and the white uniforms of Kray and his staff mingled with the blue of the French in the funeral procession of the young general of the Republic.
End of Article: FREIHERR PAUL KRAY VON KRAJOVA (1735–1804)

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