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KWANZA (COANZA or QtANZA)

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Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 958 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KWANZA (COANZA or QtANZA), a river of West Africa, with a course of about 700 M. entirely within the Portuguese territory of Angola. The source lies in about 13° 40' S., 170 30' E. on the Bihe plateau, at an altitude of over 5000 ft. It runs first N.E. and soon attains fairly large dimensions. Just north of 12° it is about 6o yds. wide and 13 to 16 ft. deep. From this point to lo° it flows N.W., receiving many tributaries, especially the Luando from the east. In about 1o°, and at intervals during its westerly passage through the outer plateau escarpments, its course is broken by rapids, the river flowing in a well-defined valley flanked by higher ground. The lowest fall is that of Kambamba, or Livingstone, with a drop of 70 ft. Thence to the sea, a distance of some 16o m., it is navigable' by small steamers, though very shallow in the dry season. The river enters the sea in 90 15' S., 13° 20' E., qo M. S. of Loanda. There is a shifting bar at its mouth, difficult to cross, but the river as a waterway has become of less importance since the fertile district in its middle basin has been served by the railway from Loanda to Ambaca (see ANGOLA). KWEI-CHOW, a south-western province of China, bounded N. by Sze-ch`uen, E. by Hu-nan, S. by Kwang-si, and W. by Yun-nan. It contains 67,000 sq. m., and has a population of about 8,000,000. Kwei-yang Fu is the provincial capital, and besides this there are eleven prefectural cities in the province. With the exception of plains in the neighbourhood of Kwei-yang Fu, Ta-ting Fu, and Tsun-i Fu, in the central and northern regions, the province may be described as mountainous. The mountain ranges in the south are largely inhabited by Miao-tsze, who are the original owners of the soil and have been constantly goaded into a state of rebellion by the oppression to which they have been subjected by the Chinese officials. To this disturbing cause was added another in 1861 by the spread of the Mahommedan rebellion in Yun-nan into some of the south-western districts of the province. The devastating effects of these civil wars were most disastrous to the trade and the prosperity of Kwei-chow. The climate is by nature unhealthy, the supply of running water being small, and that of stagnant water, from which arises a fatal malaria, being considerable. The agricultural products of the province are very limited, and its chief wealth lies in its minerals. Copper, silver, lead, and zinc are found in considerable quantities, and as regards quicksilver, Kwei-chow is probably the richest country in the world. This has been from of old the chief product of the province, and the belt in which it occurs extends through the whole district from south-west to north-east. One of the principal mining districts is Kai Chow, in the prefecture of Kwei-yang Fu, and this district has the advantage of being situated near Hwang-Ong Chow, from which place the products can be conveniently and cheaply shipped to Hankow. Cinnabar, realgar, orpiment and coal form the rest of the mineral products of Kwei-chow. Wild silk is another valuable article of export. It is chiefly manufactured in the prefecture of Tsun-i Fu.
End of Article: KWANZA (COANZA or QtANZA)
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