ROBERT DE (1782-1854), FrenchEnd of Article: HUGUES LAMENNAIS
See also:priest, and philosophical and
See also:political writer, was
See also:born at
See also:Saint Malo, in
See also:Brittany, on the 19th of
See also:June 1782 . He. was the son of a shipowner of Saint.Malo ennobled by
See also:Louis XVI. for public services, and was intended by his
See also:father to follow
See also:mercantile pursuits . He spent long
See also:hours in the library of an
See also:uncle, devouring the writings of
See also:Rousseau, Pascal and others . He thereby acquired a vast and varied, though superficial, erudition, which determined his subsequent career . Of a sickly and sensitive nature, and impressed by the horrors of the French Revolution, his mind was early seized with a morbid view of
See also:life, and this
See also:temper characterized him throughout all his changes of opinion and circumstance . He was at first inclined towards rationalistic views, but partly through the influence of his
See also:Marie (1775-1861), partly as a result of his philosophical and
See also:historical studies, he
See also:felt belief to be indispensable to
See also:action and saw in religion the most powerful
See also:leaven of the community . He gave utterance to these convictions' in the Reflexions sur l'etat de l'eglise en France pendant le i8ieme siecle et sur sa situation actuelle, published anonymously in
See also:Paris in 18o8 .
See also:police seized the
See also:book as dangerously ideological, with its eager recommendation of religious revival and active clerical organization, but it awoke the ultramontane spirit which has since played so
See also:great a
See also:part in the politics of churches and of states . As a
See also:rest from political strife,
See also:Lamennais devoted most of the following
See also:year to a
See also:translation, in exquisite French, of the
See also:Speculum Monachorum of Ludovicus Blosius (Louis de
See also:Blois) which he entitled Le
See also:Guide spirituel (1809) . In 1811 he received the tonsure and shortly afterwards became
See also:professor of
See also:mathematics in an ecclesiastical
See also:college founded by his brother at Saint Malo . Soon after Napoleon had concluded the Concordat with
See also:Pius VII. he published, in conjunction with his brother, De la tradition de l'eglise sur l'institution
See also:des eveques (1814), a writing occasioned by the emperor's nomination of
See also:Cardinal Maury to the archbishopric of Paris, in which he strongly condemned the Gallican principle which allowed bishops to be created irrespective of the
See also:pope's sanction . He was in Paris at the first Bourbon restoration in 1814, which he hailed with satisfaction, less as a monarchist than as a strenuous apostle of religious regeneration .
Dreading the Cent fours, he escaped to
See also:London, where he obtained a meagre livelihood by giving French lessons in a school founded by the
See also:abbe Jules Carron for French emigres; first impression of him as an
See also:imbecile changed into friendship . On the final overthrow of Napoleon in '8'5 he returned to Paris, and in the following year, with many misgivings as to his calling, he yielded to his brother's and Carron's advice, and was ordained priest by the
See also:bishop of
See also:Rennes . The first
See also:volume of his great
See also:work, Essai sur l'indifference en matiere de religion, appeared in '8'7 (Eng. trans. by
See also:Stanley of Alderley, London, '898), and affected
See also:Europe like a spell, investing, in the words of Lacordaire, a humble priest with all the authority once enjoyed by
See also:Bossuet . Lamennais denounced toleration, and advocated a Catholic restoration to belief . The right of private
See also:judgment, introduced by
See also:Descartes and Leibnitz into philosophy and science, by
See also:Luther into religion and by Rousseau and the Encyclopaedists into politics and society, had, he contended, terminated in
See also:practical atheism and spiritual
See also:death . Ecclesiastical authority, founded on the absolute
See also:revelation delivered to the Jewish
See also:people, but supported by the universal tradition of all nations, he proclaimed to be the
See also:sole hope of regenerating the
See also:European communities . Three more volumes (Paris, '8'8–'824) followed, and met with a mixed reception from the Gallican bishops and monarchists, but with the enthusiastic adhesion of the younger
See also:clergy . The work was examined by three
See also:Roman theologians, and received the formal approval of
See also:Leo XII . Lamennais visited Rome at the pope's
See also:request, and was offered a place in the Sacred College, which he refused . On his return to France he took a prominent part in political work, and together with Chateaubriand, the vicomte de Villele, was a
See also:regular contributor to the Conservateur, but when Villele became the chief of the supporters of absolute
See also:monarchy, Lamennais withdrew his support and started two
See also:organs, Le Drapeau blanc and Le Memorial catholique . Various other minor
See also:works, together with De la religion consideree darts ses rapports avec l'ordre
See also:civil et politique (2 vols., 1825–'826), kept his name before the public . He retired to La Chenaie and gathered
See also:round him a
See also:host of brilliant disciples, including C. de Montalembert, Lacordaire and
See also:Maurice de Guerin, his
See also:object being to
See also:form an organized
See also:body of opinion to persuade the French clergy and laity to throw off the yoke of the state connexion .
With Rome at his back, as he thought, he adopted a
See also:frank and bold attitude in denouncing the liberties of the Gallican
See also:church . His
See also:health broke down and he went to the Pyrenees to recruit . On his return to La Chenaie in 1827 he had another dangerous illness, which power-fully impressed him with the thought that he had only been dragged back to life to be the instrument of
See also:Providence .
See also:Les Progres de la revolution et de la guerre contre 1'eglise (1828) marked Lamennais's
See also:complete renunciation of royalist principles, and henceforward he dreamt of the advent of a theocratic democracy . To give effect to these views he founded L'Avenir, the first number of which appeared on the '6th of
See also:October '830, with the
See also:motto "
See also:God and Liberty." From the first the paper was aggressively democratic; it demanded rights of
See also:local administration, an °nlarged
See also:suffrage, universal freedom of
See also:conscience, freedom of instruction, of
See also:meeting, and of the
See also:press . Methods of worship were to be criticized, improved or abolished in absolute sub-
See also:mission to the spiritual, not to the temporal authority . With the help of Montalembert, he founded the Agence generale pour la defense de la liberte religieuse, which became a far-reaching organization, it had agents all over the
See also:land who noted any violations of religious freedom and reported them to
See also:head-quarters . As a result, L'Avenir's career was stormy, and the opposition of the Conservative bishops checked its circulation; Lamennais, Montalembert and Lacordaire resolved to suspend it for a while, and they set out to Rome in
See also:November '831 to obtain the approval of
See also:Gregory XVI . The " pilgrims of liberty " were, after much opposition, received in
See also:audience by the pope, but only on the
See also:condition that the object which brought them to Rome should not be mentioned . This was a bitter disappointment to such
See also:earnest ultramontanes, who received, a few days after the audience, a
See also:letter from Cardinal Pacca, advising their departure from Rome and suggesting that the 125 be also became tutor at the
See also:house of
See also:Lady Jerningham, whose
See also:Holy See, whilst admitting the
See also:justice of their intentions, would like the
See also:left open for the
See also:present . Lacordaire and Montalembert obeyed; Lamennais, however, remained in Rome, but his last hope vanished with the issue of Gregory's letter to the
See also:Polish bishops, in which the Polish patriots were reproved and the
See also:tsar was affirmed to be their lawful
See also:sovereign . He then " shook the dust of Rome from off his feet." At
See also:Munich, in 1832, he received the encyclical Mirari Dos, condemning his policy; as a result L'Avenir ceased and the Agence was dissolved .
Lamennais, with his two lieutenants, submitted, and deeply wounded, retired to La Chenaie . His
See also:genius and prophetic insight had turned the entire Catholic church against him, and those for whom he had fought so long were the fiercest of his opponents . The famous Paroles d'un croyant, published in 1834 through the intermediary of Sainte-Beuve, marks Lamennais's severance from the church . " A book, small in
See also:size, but immense in its perversity," was Gregory's
See also:criticism in a new encyclical letter . A tractate of aphorisms, it has the vigour of a
See also:Hebrew prophecy and contains the choicest gems of poetic feeling lost in a whirlwind of exaggerations and distorted views of
See also:kings and rulers . The work had an extraordinary circulation and was translated into many European
See also:languages . It is now forgotten as a whole, but the beautiful appeals to love and human brother-
See also:hood are still reprinted in every
See also:hand-book of French literature . Henceforth Lamennais was the apostle of the people alone . Les A,jjaires de Rome, des maux de l'eglise et de la societe (1837) came from old
See also:habit of religious discussions rather than from his real mind of 1837, or at most it was but a last word . Le Livre du peuple (1837), De l'esclavage moderne (1839), Politique a l'usage du peuple (1839), three volumes of articles from the journal of the extreme democracy, Le Monde, are titles of works which show that he had arrived among the missionaries of liberty, equality and fraternity, and he soon got a
See also:share of their martyrdom . Le Pays et le gouvernement (1840) caused him a year's imprisonment . He struggled through difficulties of lost friendships, limited means and
See also:personal illnesses, faithful to the last to his hardly won
See also:dogma of the
See also:sovereignty of the people, and, to
See also:judge by his contribution to Louis Blanc's Revue du progres was ready for something like
See also:communism .
He was named
See also:president of the " Societe de la solidarite republicaine," which counted
See also:half a million adherents in fifteen days . The Revolution of '848 had his sympathies, and he started Le Peuple constituant; however, he was compelled to stop it on the loth of
See also:July, complaining that silence was for the poor, but again he was at the head of La Revolution democratique et sociale, which also succumbed . In the constituent
See also:assembly he sat on the left till the
See also:coupe d'etat of Napoleon III. in 1851 put an end to all hopes of popular freedom . While
See also:deputy he drew up a constitution, but it was rejected as too
See also:radical . There-after a translation of
See also:Dante chiefly occupied him till his death, which took place in Paris on the 27th of
See also:February '854 . He refused to be reconciled to the church, and was buried according to his own directions at Pere La
See also:Chaise without funeral
See also:rites, being mourned by a countless concourse of democratic and
See also:literary admirers . During the most difficult
See also:time of his republican
See also:period he found solace for his intellect in the composition of ' Une voix de prison, written during his imprisonment in a similar
See also:strain to Les paroles d'un croyant . This is an interesting contribution to the literature of captivity; it was published in Paris in '846 . He also wrote Esquisse de philosophic (1840) . Of the four volumes of this work the third, which is an exposition of
See also:art as a development from the aspirations and necessities of the
See also:temple, stands pre-eminent, and remains the best evidence of his thinking power and brilliant
See also:style . There are two so-called CEuvres completes de Lamennais, the first in to volumes (Paris, 1836-1837), and the other in to volumes (Paris, 1844); both these are very incomplete and only contain the works mentioned above . The most noteworthy of his writings subsequently published are: Amschaspands et Darvands (1843), Le Deuil de la, Pologne (1846), Melanges philosophiques et politiques (1856), Les vangiles (1846) and La Divine Comedic, these latter being
See also:translations of the Gospels and of Dante .
Part of his voluminous
See also:correspondence has also appeared . The most interesting volumes are the following: Correspondence de F. de Lamennais, edited by E . D . Forgues (2 vols., 1855–1858) ; Euvres inedites de F . Lamennais, edited by Ange Blaize (2 vols., 1866) ; Correspondence inedite entre Lamennais et le baron de Vitrolles, edited by E . D . Forgues (1819–1853) ; Confidences de Lamennais, lettres inedites de 1821 a 1848, edited by A. du Bois de la Villerabel (1886) ; Lamennais d'apres des documents inedits, by
See also:Alfred Roussel (Rennes, 2 vols., 1892) ; Lamennais inlime, d'apres une correspondance inedite, by A . Roussel (Rennes, 1897) ; Un Lamennais inconnu, edited by A . Laveille (1898) ; Lettres de Lamennais a Montalembert, edited by E . D . Forgues (1898) ; and many other letters published in the Revue bleue, Revue britannique, &c . A
See also:list of lives or studies on Lamennais would fill several columns .
The following may be mentioned . A Blaize, Essai biographique sur M. de Lamennais (1858); E . D . Forgues, Notes et souvenirs (1859); F . Brunetiere, Nouveaux elssais sur la litterature contemporaine (1893) ; E .
See also:Faguet, Politiques et moralistes, ii . (1898) ; P .
See also:Janet, La Philosophie de Lamennais (189o); P . Mercier, S.J., Lamennais d'apres sa correspondance et les travaux les plus recents (1893) ; A . Mollien et F . Duine, Lamennais, sa
See also:vie et ses idees; Pages choisies (
See also:Lyons . 1898) ; The Hon .
See also:Gibson, The Abbe de Lammenais and the Liberal Catholic
See also:Movement in France (London, 1896) ; E .
See also:Renan Essais de morale et de critique (1857) ; E . Scherer, Melanges de critique religieuse (1859); G . E .
See also:Spuller, Lamennais, etude d'histoire et de politique religieuse (1892); Mgr .
See also:Ricard, L'icole menaisienne (1882), and Sainte-Beuve, Portraits contemporains, tome i . (1832), and Nouveaux Lundis, tome i. p . 22; tome xi. p . 347 .
LAMELLIBRANCHIA (Lat. lamella, a small or thin plat...
LAMENTATIONS (Lamentations of Jeremiah)
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