Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V21, Page 252 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE I. Persian (Iranian) Languages.—Under the name of Persian is included the whole of that great family of languages occupying a field nearly coincident with the modern Iran, of which true Persian is simply the western division. It is therefore common and more correct to speak of the Iranian family. The original native name of the race which spoke these tongues was Aryan. King Darius is called on an inscription " a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan race "; and the followers of the Zoroastrian religion in their earliest records never give themselves any other title but Airyavo danghavo, that is to say, " Aryan races." The province of the Iranian language is bounded on the west by the Semitic, on the north and north-east by the Ural-altaic or Turanian, and on the south-east by the kindred language of India. The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel. The Indo-European Iranian Languor or Indo-Germanic languages are divided by Brug- mann Languages. into (1) Aryan, with sub-branches (a) Indian, (b) Iranian; (2) Armenian; (3) Greek; (4) Albanian; (5) Italic; (6) Celtic; (7) Germanic, with sub-branches (a) Gothic, (b) Scandinavian, (c) West Germanic; and (8) Balto-Slavonic. (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the " Asiatic base-language ") is subdivided into (I) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages, (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN); Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian. The common characteristics of all Iranian languages, which distinguish them especially from Sanskrit, are as follows: I. Changes of the original s into the spirant h. Thus Sanskrit. Zend. Old Persian. New Persian. sindhu (Indus) hindu hindu hind larva (all) haurva haruva bar sama (whole) hama hama ham santi (sunt) henti hantiy hend. 2. Change of the original aspirates gh, dh, bh (= x, 9, d.) into the corresponding medials Sanskrit. Zend. Old Persian. New Persian. bhiimi (earth) bumi bumi hum dhita (Beres) data data dad gharma (heat) garema garma garm. 3. k, t, p before a consonant are changed into the spirants kh, th, f Sanskrit. Zend. Old Persian. New Persian. prathama (first) fratema fratema fradum (Parsi) kratu (insight) khratu . . . . khirad.[LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 4. The development of soft sibilants Sanskrit. Zend. Old Persian. New Persian. Asuro Medhasl Ahura. Mazdao Auramazda Ormuzd bahu (arm) bazu . . . bazu hima (hiems) zima . . . . zim. Our knowledge of the Iranian languages in older periods is too fragmentary to allow of our giving a complete account of this family and of its special historical development. It will be sufficient here to distinguish the main types of the older and the more recent periods. From antiquity we have sufficient knowledge of two dialects, the first belonging to eastern Iran, the second to western. 1. Zend or Old Bactrian.—Neither of these two titles is well chosen. The name Old Bactrian suggests that the language was limited to the small district of Bactria, or at least that it was spoken there—which is, at the most, only an Zend. hypothesis. Zend, again (originally azaintish), is not the name of a language, as Anquetil Duperron supposed, but means " interpretation " or " explanation," and is specially applied to the medieval Pahlavi translation of the Avesta. Our " Zend-Avesta " does not mean the Avesta in the Zend language, but is an incorrect transcription of the original expression " Avistak va zand," i.e. " the holy text (Avesta) together with the translation." But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained. But the home of the Zend language was certainly in eastern Iran; all attempts to seek it farther west—e.g. in Media 2—must be regarded as failures. Zend is the language of the so-called Avesta,' the holy book of the Persians, containing the oldest documents of the religion of Zoroaster. Besides this important monument, which is about twice as large as the Iliad and Odyssey put together, we only possess very scanty relics of the Zend language in medieval glosses and scattered quotations in Pahlavi books. These remains, however, suffice to give a complete insight into the structure of the language. Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist. In age it almost rivals Sanskrit; in primitiveness it surpasses that language in many points; it is inferior only in respect of its less extensive literature, and because it has not been made the subject of systematic grammatical treatment. The age of Zend must be examined in connexion with the age of the Avesta. In its present form the Avesta is not the work of a single author or of any one age, but embraces collections produced during a long period. The view wbich became current through Anquetil Duperron, that the Avesta is throughout the work of Zoroaster (in Zend, Zarathushtra), the founder of the religion, has long been abandoned as untenable. But the opposite view, that not a single word in the book can lay claim to the authorship of Zoroaster, also appears on closer study too sweeping. In the Avesta two stages of the language are plainly distinguishable. The older is represented in but a small part of the whole work, the so-called Gathas or songs. These songs form the true kernel of the book Yasna; 4 they must have been in existence long before all the other parts of the Avesta, throughout the whole of which allusions to them occur. These gathas are what they claim to be, and what they are honoured in the whole Avesta as being—the actual productions of the prophet himself or of his time. They bear in themselves irrefutable proofs of their authenticity, bringing us face to face not with the Zoroaster of the legends but with a real person, announcing a new doctrine and way of salvation, no supernatural Being assured of victory, but a mere man, struggling with human conflicts of every sort, in the midst of a society of fellow-believers yet in its earliest infancy. It is almost impossible that a much later period could have produced such unpretentious and almost depreciatory representations of the deeds and personality of the prophet. If, then, the gathas reach back to the time of Zoroaster, and he himself, according to the most probable estimate, lived as early as the 14th century B.C., the oldest component parts of the Avesta are hardly inferior in age to the oldest Vedic hymns. The gathas are still extremely rough in style and expression; the language is richer in forms than the more recent Zend; and the vocabulary shows important differences. The pre-dominance of the long vowels is a marked characteristic, the constant appearance of a long final vowel contrasting with the preference for a final short in the later speech. i Name of the supreme, god of the Persians. 2 Cf. I. Darmesteter, Etudes iraniennes, i. to (Paris, 1883). 3 This, and not Zend-Avesta, is the correct title for the original text of the Persian Bible. The origin of the word is doubtful, and we cannot point to it before the time of the Sassanians. Perhaps it means " announcement," " revelation." ' The Avesta is divided into three parts: (I) Yasna, with an appendix, Visparad, a collection of prayers and forms for divine service; (2) Vendidad, containing directions for purification and the penal code of the ancient Persians; (3) Khordah-Avesta, or the Small Avesta, containing the Yasht, the contents of which are for the most part mythological, with shorter prayers for private devotion. since then made rapid strides, especially since the Vedas have opened to us a knowledge of the oldest Sanskrit. 2. Old Persian.—This is the language of the ancient Persians properly so-called,' in all probability the mother-tongue of Middle Persian of the Pahlavi texts, and of New Persian. We Oldperslan. know Old Persian from the rock-inscriptions of the Achaemenians, now fully deciphered. Most of them, and these the longest, date from the time of Darius, but we have specimens as late as Artaxerxes Ochus. In the latest inscriptions the language is already much degraded; but on the whole it is almost as antique as Zend, with which it has many points in common. For instance, if we take a sentence from an inscription of Darius as " Auramazda hya imam bumim ada hya avam asmanam ada hya martiyam ada hya siyatim ada martiyahya hya Darayavaum khshayathiyam akunaush aivam paruvnam khshayathiyam," it would be in Zend " Ahuro mazdao yo imam bumim ad-at yo aom asmanem adat yo mashim adat yo shaitim adat mashyahe yo darayatvohum khshaetem akerenaot oyum pourunam khshaetem."4 The phonetic system in Old Persian is much simpler than in Zend; we reckon twenty-four letters in all. The short vowels e, o are wanting; in their place the old " a " sound still appears as in Sanskrit, e.g. Zend bagem, Old Persian bagam, Sanskrit bhagam; Old Persian hamarana, Zend hamerena, Sanskrit samarana. As regards consonants, it is noticeable that the older z (soft s) still preserved in Zend passes into d—a rule that still holds in New Persian ; compare Sanskrit. Zend. Old Persian. New Persian. hasta (hand) zasta dasta dast jrayas (sea) zrayo daraya darya aham (I) azem adam .. . Also Old Persian has no special 1. Final consonants are almost entirely wanting. In this respect Old Persian goes much farther than the kindred idioms, e.g. Old Persian abara, Sanskrit abharat, Zend abarat, Iepe: nominative baga, root-form baga-s, Sanskrit bhagas. The differences in declension between Old Persian and Zend are unimportant. Old Persian inscriptions are written in the cuneiform character of the simplest form, known as the " first class." Most of the inscriptions have besides two translations into the more complicated kinds of cuneiform character of two other languages of the Persian Empire. One of these is the Assyrian ; the real nature of the second is still a mystery. The interpretation of the Persian cuneiform, the character and dialect of which were equally unknown, was begun by G. F. Grotefend, who was followed by E. Burnouf, Sir Henry Rawlinson and J. Oppert. The ancient Persian inscriptions have been collected in a Latin translation with grammar and glossaries by F. Spiegel (Leipzig, 1862 ; new and enlarged ed., 1881). The other ancient tongues and dialects of this family are known only by name; we read of peculiar idioms in Sogdiana, Zabulistan, Herat, &c. It is doubtful whether the languages of the Scythians, the Lycians and the Lydians, of which hardly anything remains, were Iranian or not. After the fall of the Achaemenians there is a period of five centuries, from which no document of the Persian language has come down to us. Under the Arsacids Persian nationality rapidly declined; all that remains to us from that period—namely, the inscriptions on coins —is in the Greek tongue. Only towards the end of the Parthian dynasty and after the rise of the Sassanians, under whom the national traditions were again cultivated in Persia, do we recover the lost traces of the Persian language in the Pahlavi inscriptions and literature. 3. Middle Persian.—The singular phenomena presented by Pahlavi writing have been discussed in a separate article (see PAHLAVI). The languages which it disguises rather middle than expresses—Middle Persian, as we may call it— Persian. presents many changes as compared with the Old Persian of the Achaemenians. The abundant grammatical forms of the ancient language are much reduced in number; the case-ending is lost; the noun has only two inflexions, the singular and the plural; the cases are expressed by prepositions—e.g. ruban (the soul), nom. and ace. sing., plur. rubanan; dat. val or avo ruban, abl. min or az ruban. Even distinctive forms for gender are entirely abandoned, e.g. the pronoun' avo signifies " he," " she," " it." In the verb compound forms predominate. In this respect Middle Persian is almost exactly similar to New Persian. Sanskrit. Gat ha. Later Zend. abhi (near) aibi aiwi ilia (work) izha izha. The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the gathas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language of the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the later Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, exceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly more than two dialects of one tongue. Whole strophes of the gathas can be turned into good old Sanskrit by the application of certain phonetic laws; for example " mat lido padaish ya frasruta izhayao pairijasai mazda ustanazasto at vao ashy aredrahyaca nemangha at vat) vangehush mananghO hunaretata," becomes in Sanskrit " mana vah padaih ya pragruta ihayah parigachai medha uttanahastah at va rtena radhrasyaca namasa at vo vasor manasah sunrtaya." The language of the other parts of the Avesta is more modern, but not all of one date, so that we can follow the gradual decline of Zend in the Avesta itself. The later the date of a text, the simpler is the grammar, the more lax the use of the cases. We have no chronological points by which to fix the date when Zend ceased to be a living language; no part of the Avesta can well be put later thah the 5th or 4th century E.C. Before Alexander's time it is said to have been already written out on dressed cowhides and preserved in the state archives at Persepolis. The followers of Zoroaster soon ceased to understand Zend. For this reason all that time had spared of the Avesta was translated into Middle Persian or PAHLAVI (q.v.) under the Sassanians. This translation, though still regarded as canonical by the Parsees, shows. a very imperfect knowledge of the original language. Its value for modern philology has been the subject of much needless controversy amongst European scholars. It is only a secondary means towards the comprehension of the ancient text, and must be used with discrimination. A logical system of comparative exegesis, aided by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the other Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost sense of the Zend texts. The phonetic system of Zend consists of simple signs which express the different shades of sound in the language with great precision. In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence of the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and Old Persian ; thus the Sanskrit santi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes henli in Zend. The use of the vowels is complicated by a tendency to combinations of vowels and to epenthesis, i.e. the transposition of weak vowels into the next syllable; e.g. Sanskrit bharati, Zend baraiti (he carries) ; Old Persian margu, Zend mourva (Merv) ; Sanskrit rinakli, Zend irinakhti. Triphthongs are not uncommon, e.g. Sanskrit arvebhyas (dative plural of acva, a horse) is in Zend aspaeibyo ; Sanskrit krnoti (he does), Zend kerenaoitti. Zend has also a great tendency to insert irrational vowels, especially near liquids; owing to this the words seem rather inflated; e.g. savya (on the left) becomes in Zend havaya ; bhrajati (it glitters), Zend barazaiti; gna (-omit), Zend gena. In the .consonantal system we are struck by the abundance of sibilants (s and sh, in three forms of modification, z and zh) and nasals (five in number), and by the complete absence of 1. A characteristic phonetic change is that of rt into sh; e.g. Zend asha for Sanskrit rta, Old Persian arta (in Artaxerxes) ; fravashi for Pahlavi fravardin, New, Persian ferver (the spirits of the dead). The verb displays a like abundance of primary forms with Sanskrit, but the conjugation by periphrasis is only slightly developed. The noun has the same eight cases as in Sanskrit. In the gathas there is a special ablative, limited, as in Sanskrit, to the " a " stems, whilst in later Zend the ablative is extended to all the stems indifferently. We do not know in what character Zend was written before the time of Alexander. From the Sassanian period we find an alphabetic and very legible character in use, derived from Sassanian Pahlavi, and closely resembling the younger Pahlavi found in books. The oldest known manuscripts are of the 14th century A.D.' Although the existence of the Zend language was known to the Oxford scholar Thomas Hyde, the Frenchman Anquetil Duperron, who went to the East Indies in 1755 to visit the Parsee priests, was the first to draw the attention of the learned world to the subject. Scientific study of Zend texts began with E. Burnouf, and has " With verses of my making, which are now heard, and with prayerful hands, I come before thee, Mazda, and with the sincere humility of the upright man and with the believer's song of praise." 2 Grammars by F. Spiegel (Leipzig, 1867) and A. V. W. Jackson (Stuttgart, 1892); Dictionary by F. Justi (Leipzig, 1864); editions of the Avesta by N. L. Westergaard (Copenhagen, 1852) and C. F. Geldner (Stuttgart, 1886–1895; also in English) ; translation into German by Spiegel (Leipzig, 1852), and into English by Darmesteter (Oxford, 188o) in Max Mailer's Sacred Books of the East. 3 And perhaps of the Medes. Although we have no record of the Median language we cannot regard it as differing to any great extent from the Persian. The Medes and Persians were two closely-connected races. There is nothing to justify us in looking for the true Median language either in the cuneiform writings of the second class or in Zend. 4 " Ormuzd, who created this earth and that heaven, who created man and man's dwelling-place, who made Darius king, the one and t only king of many." 248 4. New Persian.—The last step in the development of the metre and rhyme; others mention as author of the first Persian language is New Persian, represented in its oldest form by Firdousi. poem a certain Abulhaf of So hd near Samarkand. In point In grammatical forms it is still poorer than Middle g New Persian; except English, no Indo European language of fact, there is no doubt that the later Sassanian rulers fostered Persian. has so few inflexions, but this is made up for by the the literary spirit of their nation (see PAHLAVI). Pahlavi books, subtle development of the syntax. The structure of New Persian however, fall outside of the present subject, which is the literature has hardly altered at all since the Shahnama; but the original of the idiom which shaped itself out of the older Persian speech purism rom f ree ofSFiemrditic ousamii,dwhoxturemadecould everynot loneffogrtbettomakeeintp thaineed.Alangurabiagec by slight modifications and a steadily increasing mixture of f, literature and speech exercised so powerful an influence on New Arabic words and phrases in the 9th and loth centuries of our Persian, especially on the written language, that it could not era, and which in all essential respects has remained the same withstand the admission of an immense number of Semitic words. for the last thousand years. The death of Harun al-Rashid in There is no Arabic word which would be refused acceptance in the beginning of the 9th century, which marks the commence-good Persian. But, nevertheless, New Persian has remained a language of genuine Iranian stock. ment of the decline of the caliphate, was at the same time the Among the changes of the sound system in New Persian, as starting-point of movements for national independence and a contrasted with earlier periods, especially with Old Persian, the national literature in the Iranian dominion, and the common first that claims mention is the change of the tenues k, t, p, c, into cradle of the two was in the province of Khorasan, between the g, d, b, z. Thus we have Old Persian or Zend. Pahlavi. New Persian. Oxus and the Jaxartes. In Merv, a Khorasanian town, a certain mahrka (death) mark marg `Abbas composed in 809 A.D. (193 A.11 ), according to the oldest Thraetaona Fritun Feridun biographical writer of Persia, Mahommed 'Aufi, the Earliest ap (water) ap ab first real poem in modern Persian, in honour of the Modern hvato (self) khot khod Abbasid prince Mamun, Harun al-Rashid's son, who Persian raucah (day) roj ruz had himself a strong predilection for Persia, his Poet. haca aj az. A series of consonants often disappear in the spirant; thus— mother's native country, and was, moreover, thoroughly imbued Old Persian or Zend. Pahlavi. New Persian. with the freethinking spirit of his age. Soon after this, in 8zo kaufa (mountain) kof koh (205 A.H.), Tahir, who aided Mamun to wrest the caliphate from gathu (place), Z. gatu gas gal his brother Amin, succeeded in establishing the first semi- cathware (four) . . cihar independent Persian dynasty in Khorasan, which was overthrown bandaka (slave) bandak bandah in 872 (259 A.H.) by the Saffarids. Spada (army) sipaham. The development of Persian poetry under these first native dih dadami (I give) . . . Old d and dh frequently become y— dynasties was slow. Arabic language and literature had gained Old Persian or-.Zend. Pahlavi. New Persian. too firm a footing to be supplanted at once by a new literary madhu (wine) . . mai idiom still in its infancy; nevertheless the few poets who arose baodho (consciousness) bed boi under the Tahirids and Saffarids show already the germs of the adha (foot) . . . . pai characteristic tendency of all later Persian literature, which tadha (when) . . . . kai. aims at amalgamating the enforced spirit of Islamism with their Old y often appears as j: Zend yama (glass), New Persian jam; own Aryan feelings, and reconciling the strict deism of the yavan (a youth), New Persian Javan. Two consonants are not Mahommedan religion with their inborn loftier and more or less allowed to stand together at the beginning of a word; hence vowels are frequently inserted or prefixed, e.g. New Persian sitadan or pantheistic ideas; and we can easily trace in the few fragmentary istadan (to stand), root stet; biradar (bror.her), Zend and Pahlavi verses of men like I,lanzala, Hakim Firuz and Abu Salik those bratar.' principal forms of poetry now used in common by Forms of Amongst modern languages and dialects other than Persian which all Mahommedan nations—the forms of the gasida Eastern must be also assigned to the Iranian family may be Modern (the encomiastic, elegiac or satirical poem), the Poetry. Dialects. mentioned: t. Kurdish, a language nearly akin to New Persian, ghazal or ode (a love-ditty, wine-song or religious hymn), the with which it has important characteristics in common. It is ruba'i or quatrain (our epigram, for which the Persians invented chiefly distinguished from it by a marked tendency to shorten a new metre in addition to those adopted from the Arabs), and words at all costs, e.g. Kurd. beret (brother) =New Persian biradar; the mathnawi or double-rhymed poem the legitimate form for Kurd. dim (I give) =New Persian diham; Kurd. spi (white) New p ( Persian siped. epic and didactic poetry). The first who wrote such a mathnawi 2. Baluch, the language of Baluchistan, also very closely akin was Abu Shukur of Balkh, the oldest literary representative of to New Persian, but especially distinguished from it in that all the third dynasty of Khorasan, the Samanids, who had been able the old spirants are changed into explosives, e.g. Baluch vab (sleep) = Zend hvafna; Baluch kap (slime) = Zend kafa, New Persian kaf; in the course of time to dethrone the Saffarids, and to secure the Baluch hapt (seven) =New Persian haft. government of Persia, nominally still under the supremacy of 3. Ossetic, true Iranian, in spite of its resemblance in sound to the caliphs in Bagdad, but in fact with full sovereignty. The the Georgian.' undisputed reign of this family dates from the accession of Amir 4. Pushtu (less accurately Afghan), which has certainly been Nasr II. (913—942; ' 301–331 A.H.), who, more than any of his increasingly influenced by the neighbouring Indian languages in inflexion, syntax and vocabulary, but is still at bottom a pure predecessors, patronized arts and sciences in his dominions. Iranian language, not merely intermediate between Iranian and The most accomplished minstrels of his time were minstrels Indian. Mahommed Faraladi (or Faralawi); Abu '1-'Abbas of loth The position of Armenian remains doubtful. Some scholars of Bokhara, a writer of very tender verses; Abu century. attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group. '1-Mu2affar Nasr of Nishapur; Abu 'Abdallah Mahommed of Many words that at first sight seem to prove its Iranian origin are Junaid, equally renowned for his Arabic and Persian poetry; only adopted from the Persians (K. G.) Ma'nawi of Bokhara, full of original thoughts and spiritual II. Modern Persian Literature.—Persian historians are greatly subtleties; Khusrawani, from whom even Firdousi condescended at variance about the origin of their national poetry. .Most of to borrow quotations; Abu '1-Hasan Shahid of Balkh, the first them go back to the 5th Christian century and ascribe to one who made a diwan or alphabetical collection of his lyrics; and of the Sassanian kings, Bahram V. (420—439), the invention of Rudagi (or Rudaki), the first classic genius of Persia, who im- ' Grammars of New Persian, by M. Lumsden (Calcutta, 1810), pressed upon every form of lyric and didactic poetry its peculiar A. B. Chodzko (Paris, 1852 ; new ed., 1883), D. Forbes (1869), stamp and individual character (see RUDAGi). His graceful and J. A. Vullers (Giessen, 187o), A. Wahrmund (Giessen, 1875), C. captivating style was imitated by Hakim Khabbaz of Nishapur, Salemann and V. Zhukovski (Leipzig, 1889) ; J. T. Platts a great baker, poet and quack; Abu Shu'aib Salih of Herat, who (pt. i. 1984). For the New Persian dialects see Fr. Muller, in the left a spirited little song in honour of a young Christian maiden; Sillzungsber. der wien. Akad., vols. lxxvii., lxxviii. Raunaqi of Bokhara; Abu'l-Fath of Bust, who was also a good Cf. Hubschmann, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xxiv. 396. ' Cf. P. de Lagarde, Armenische Studien (Gottingen, 1877) ; Arabic poet; the amir Atha '1-Iilasan 'Ali Alagatchi, who handled )EI. Hubschmann, Armenische Studien (Leipzig, 1883). the pen as skilfully as the sword; 'Umara of Merv, a famous astronomer; and Kisa'i, a native of the same town, a man of stern and ascetic manners, who sang in melodious rhythm the praise of `Ali and the twelve imams. All these poets flourished under the patronage of the Samanid princes, who also fostered the growing desire of their nation for historical and antiquarian researches, for exegetical and medical studies. Mansur I., the grandson of Rudagi's patron, ordered (963; 352 A.H.) his vizier Ba1'ami to translate the famous universal history of Tabarl (838-923 A.D.) from Arabic into Persian; and this Tabari. q'a'rikh-i-Tabari, the oldest prose work in modern Persian, is not merely remarkable from a philological point of view, it is also the classic model of an easy and simple style (French trans. by L. Dubeux and H. Zotenberg, 1867-1874). The same prince employed the most learned among the ulema of Transoxiana for a translation of Tabari's second great work, the Tafsir, or commentary on the Koran, and accepted the dedication of the first Persian book on medicine, a pharmacopoeia by the physician Abu Mansur MVIuwaffaq b. `Ali of Herat (edited by Seligmann, Vienna, 1859), which forms a kind of connecting link between Greek and Indian medicine. It was soon after further developed by the great Avicenna (d. 1037; 428 A.H.), himself a Persian by birth and author of pretty wine-songs, moral maxims, psychological tracts, and a manual of philosophic science, the Danishnama-i-Ala'i, in his native tongue. A still greater impulse was given, both to thepatriotic feelings and the national poetry of the Persians, by Mansur's son and successor, Prince Nub IL, who ascended the throne in 976 (365 A.11.). Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet Dakiki (Daqiqi), who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khoda'inama, or " Book of Kings," into Persian verse. Shortly after commencing this work Dakiki was murdered in the prime of life; his death was soon followed by the fall of the Samanid dynasty itself. But Dakiki's great enterprise was not abandoned; a stronger hand, a higher genius, was to continue and to complete it, and this genius was found in Firdousi (940—1020; 328-411 A.H.), with whom we enter the golden age of the national epopee in Persia (see FIRDOUSI). In loll, after thirty-five years of unremitting labour, he accomplished his gigantic task, and wrote the last distichs of the immortal Shahnama, that " glorious monument of Eastern genius and learning," as Sir W. Jones calls it, " which, if ever it should be generally understood in its original language, will contest the merit of invention with Homer itself." The Shah-Imitations of nama, from the very moment of its appearance, the "shah- exercised such an irresistible fascination upon all lama." minds that there was soon a keen competition among the younger poets as to who should produce the most successful imitation of that classic model; and this competition has gone on under different forms through all the following centuries, even to the most recent times. First of all, the old popular traditions, so far as they had not yet been exhausted by Firdousi, were ransacked for new epic themes, and a regular cycle of national epopees gathered round the Book of Kings, drawn almost exclusively from the archives of the princes of Sejistan, the family of Firdousi's greatest hero, Rustam. The first and most ambitious of these competitors seems to have been Asadi's own son, `Ali b. Alimad al-Asadi, the author of the oldest Persian glossary, who completed in io66 (458 A.H.), in upwards of 9000 distichs, the Garshaspnama, or marvellous story of the warlike feats and love adventures of Garshasp, one of Rustam's ancestors. The heroic deeds of Rustam's grandfather were celebrated in the Samnama, which almost equals the .Shahnama in length; those of Rustam's two sons, in the Jahagairnama and the Faramurznama; those of his daughter, an amazon, in the Brunhild style of the German Nibelunge, in the Bann; Gushaspnama; those of his grandson in the Barsunama; those of his great-grandson in the Shahriy¢rnama (ascribed to Mukhtarl and dedicated to Masud Shah, who is probably identical with Masud b. Ibrahim, Sultan Mahmud's great-grandson, 1099-1114; 492-508 A.H.) ; and the wonderful exploitsof a son of Isfandiyar, another hero of the Shahnama, in the Bahmannama. When these old Iranian sources were almost exhausted, the difficulty was met in various ingenious ways. Where some slight historical records of the heroic age were still obtainable poetical imagination seized upon them at once; where no traditions at all were forthcoming fiction pure and simple asserted its right; and thus the national epopee gave way to the epic story, and—substituting prose for verse—to the novel and the fairy tale. Models of the former class are the various Iskandarndmas, or " Books of Alexander the Great," the oldest and most original of which is that of Nizami of Ganja, the modern Elizavetpol (completed about 1202; 599 A.H.); the latter begins with the Kitab-i-Samak 'Iyar, a novel in three volumes (about 1189; 585 A.H.), and reaches its climax in the Bustein-i-Khayal, or " Garden of Imagination," a prose romance of fifteen large volumes, by Mahommed Taki Khayal, written between 1742 and 1756 (1155 and 1169 A.H.). Some writers, both in prose and verse, turned from the exhausted fields of the national glory of Persia, and chose their subjects from the chivalrous times of their own Bedouin conquerors, or even from the Jewish legends of the Koran. Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by Ilasani Shabistari 'Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn Husam's Khdwarnama (1427; 830 A.H.), of the deeds of `Ali; Badhil's Ilamla-i-Haidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.11.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Kazim's Farahnama-i-Fatima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomet's daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)—all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of (`Iatim Ta'i, the famous model of liberality and generosity in pre-Islamitic times; of Amir Ilamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu`jizat-i-Musawi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by Mu'in-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.H.). Quite a different turn was taken by the ambition of another class of imitators of Firdousi, especially during the last four centuries of the Hegira, who tried to create a new4atert3pics. heroic epopee by celebrating in rhythm and rhyme stirring events of recent date. The gigantic figure of Timur inspired Hatifi (d. 1521; 927 A.H.) with his Timurnama; the stormy epoch of the first Safawid rulers, who succeeded at last in reuniting for some time the various provinces of the old Persian realm into one great monarchy, furnished Kasimi (died after 156o; 967 A.11.)1 with the materials of his Shahnama, a poetical history of Shah Ismail and Shah Tahmasp. Another Shahnama, celebrating Shah `Abbas the Great, was written by Karnali of Sabzevar; and even the cruelties of Nadir Shah were duly chronicled in a pompous epic style in 'Ishrati's Shahnama-i-Nadir; (1749; 1162 A.H.). But all these poems are surpassed in length by the 33,000 distichs of the Shahinshahnama by the poet-laureate of Fatly `All Shah of Persia (1797-1834), and the 40,000 distichs of the Georgenama, a poetical history of India from its discovery by the Portuguese to the conquest of Poona by the English in 1817. In India this kind of epic versification has flourished since the beginning of Humayun's reign (1530-1556) e.g. the 2afarnama-i-Shahjahani by Kudsi (d. 1646; 1056 A.H.); the Shahinshahnama by Talib Kalim (d. 1651; io6n A.H.), another panegyrist of Shah Jahan; Atashi's `Adilnama, in honour of Shah Mahommed `Adil of Bijapur, who ascended the throne in 1629 (1039 A.H.) or 1627; the Tawarikhi-IKuli Kutbsltah, a metrical history of the Kutb shahs of Golconda; and many more, down to the Fathnama-i-Tipil Sultan by Ghulam Hasan (1784; 1198 A.H.). But the national epopee was not the only bequest the great Firdousi left to his nation. This rich genius gave also the first impulse to romantic, didactic and mystic poetry; and even his own age produced powerful co-operators in these three most conspicuous departments of Persian literature. Romantic fiction, which achieved its highest triumph in Niami of Ganja's (1141-1203; 535-599 A.H.) brilliant pictures of the struggles and passions in the human heart 1 After 1592 (979 A.H.) according to H. E. in Grundriss, ii. 237. Firdousi. itomantk Fiction. (see N'ZAM'), sent forth its first tender shoots in the numerous love stories of the Shahnama, the most fascinating of which is that of Zal and Rudabeh, and developed almost into full bloom in Firdousi's second great mathnawi Yusuf u Zalikhd, which the aged poet wrote after his flight from Ghazni, and dedicated to the reigning caliph of Bagdad, al Qadir billah. It represents the oldest poetical treatment of the Biblical story of Joseph, which has proved so attractive to the epic poets of Persia, among others to 'Am'ak of Bokhara (d. 1'49), who was the first after Firdousi to write a Yusuf u Zalikhd to Jam): (d. 1492); Mauji Kasim Khan, Humayun's amir (d. 1571), Nazim of Herat (d. 167o), and Shaukat, the governor of Shiraz under Fath `All Shah. Perhaps prior in date to Firdousi's Yusuf was his patron 'Unsuri's romance, Wimili u Adhrd, a popular Iranian legend of great antiquity, which had been first written in verse under the Tahirid dynasty. This favourite story was treated again by Fasihi Jurjani (5th century of the Hegira), and by many modern poets—as Damiri, who died under the Safawi shah Mahommed (1577—'586; 985-994 A.H.), Nami, the historiographer of the Zand dynasty, and Ilosain of Shiraz under Fath 'Ali Shah, the last two flourishing towards the beginning of the present century. Another love story of similar antiquity formed the basis of Fakr-uddin As'ad Jorjani's Wis u Ramin, which was composed in Isfahan about ro48 (440 A.H.)—a poem remarkable not only for its high artistic value but also for its resemblance to Gottfried von Strassburg's Tristan and Isolt. The last-named Persian poet was apparently one of the earliest eulogists of the Seljuks, and it was under this Turkish dynasty Encomiasts that lyrical romanticism rose to the highest pitch. and What Firdousi and the court-poets of Sultan Mahmud satirists. had commenced, what Abu 'l-Faraj Rani of Lahore and Masud b. Sa'd b. Salman (under Sultan Ibrahim, 1059- '099) had successfully continued, reached its perfection in the famous group of panegyrists who gathered in the first half of the 6th century of the Hegira round the throne of Sultan Sinjar, and partly also round that of his great antagonist, Atsiz, shah of Khwarizm. This group included Adib Sabir, who was drowned by order of the prince in the Oxus about '145 (54o A.H.), and his pupil Jauhari, the goldsmith of Bokhara; Amir Mu'izzi, the king of poets at Sin jar's court, killed by a stray arrow in 1147 (542 A.H.), Rashid Watwat (the Swallow) who died in '182 (578 A.H.), and left, besides his kasidas, a valuable treatise on poetry (Hada'ili-essihr) and a metrical translation of the sentences of 'Abd-alwasi' Jabali, who sang at first, like his contemporary Hasan Ghaznawi (d. 1169; 565 A.11.), the praise of the Ghaznevid shah Bahrain, but afterwards bestowed his eulogies upon Sinjar, the conqueror of Ghazni; and Aul7ad-uddin Anwar'., the most celebrated kasida-writer of the whole Persian literature. Anwar'. (died between 1189 and 1191; 585 and 587 A.H.), who in early life had pursued scientific studies in the madrasa of Tus, and who ranked among the foremost astronomers of his time, owes his renown as much to the inexhaustible store of poetical similes and epitheta ornantia which he showered upon Sinjar and other royal and princely personages, as to his cutting sarcasms, which he was careful to direct, not against individuals, but against whole classes of society and the cruel wrong worked by an inexorable fate—thus disregarding the example of Firdousi, whose attack upon Sultan Mahmud for having cheated him out of the reward for his epopee is the oldest and most finished specimen of personal satire. This legitimate branch of high art, however, soon degenerated either into the lower forms of parody and travesty—for which, for instance, a whole group of Transoxanian writers, Suzani of Samarkand (d. 1174; 569 A.H.) and his contemporaries, Abu 'All Shatranji of the same town, Lami' of Bokhara, and others gained a certain literary reputation—or into mere comic pieces and jocular poems like the " Pleasantries " (Hazliyyat) and the humorous stories of the " Mouse and Cat " and the " Stone-cutter " (Sangtarash) by 'Ubaid Zakani (d. '370; 772 A.H.). Anwari's greatest rival was Khakani (d. 1199; 595 A.H.), the son of a carpenter in Shirvan, and panegyrist of the shahs of Shirvan, usually called the Pindar of the East. To European taste only the shorterepigrams and the double-rhymed poem Tuhfatul'irdleain, in which Khakani describes his journey to Mecca and back, give full satisfaction. Among his numerous contemporaries and followers may be noticed Mujir-udd'.n Bailakani (d. 1198; 594 A.H.); Zahir Faryabi (d. '202; 598 A.H.) and Athir Akhsikati (d. 121'; 6o8 A.H.)—all three panegyrists of the atabegs of Azerbaijan, and especially of Sultan Kizil Arslan—Kamal-uddin Isfahani, tortured to death by the Moguls in 1237 (635 A.H.), who sang, like his father Jamal-uddin, the praise of the governors of Isfahan, and gained the epithet of the " creator of fine thoughts " (Khallak-ulma'ani) ; and Saif-uddin Isfarangi (d. '267; 666 A.H.), a favourite of the shahs of Khwarizm. Fruitful as the 6th and 7th centuries of the Hegira were in panegyrics, they attained an equally high standard in didactic and mystic poetry. The origin of both can again Didactic and be traced to Firdousi and his time. In the ethical Mystic reflections, wise maxims and moral exhortations Poetry• scattered throughout the Shahnama the didactic element is plainly visible, and equally plain in it are the traces of that mystical tendency which was soon to pervade almost all the literary productions of Persian genius. But the most characteristic passage of the epopee is the mysterious disappearance of Shah Kaikhosrau, who suddenly, when at the height of earthly fame and splendour, renounces the world in utter disgust, and, carried away by his fervent longing for an abode of everlasting tranquillity, vanishes for ever from the midst of his companions. The first Persian who employed poetry exclusively for the illustration of Sufic doctrines was Firdousi's con- ~urc poets. temporary, the renowned sheikh Abu Sa'id b. Abu 1-Khair of Mahna in Khorasan (968-1049; 357-440 A.H.), the founder of that specific form of the ruba'i which gives the most concise expression to religious and philosophic aphorisms —a form which was further developed by the great free-thinker 'OMAR B. KHAYYAM (q.v.), and Afdal-uddin Kiash (d. 1307; 707 A.H.). The year of Abu Sa'id's death is most likely that of the first great didactic mathnawi, the Rushan. a'indma, or " Book of Enlightenment," by NAS'R KHOSRAU (q.v.), a poem full of sound moral and ethical maxims with slightly mystical tendencies. About twenty-five years later the first theoretical handbook of Sufism in Persian was composed by 'Ali b. 'Uthman al-Jullabi al-Hujwiri in the Kashf-ulmalhjub, or, " Revelation of Hidden Things," which treats of the various schools of Sufis, their teachings and observances. A great saint of the same period, Sheikh `Abdallah Ansari of Herat (1006-1089; 396-481 A.H.), assisted in spreading the pantheistic movement by his Munajat or " Invocations to God," by several prose tracts, and by an important collection of biographies of eminent Sufis, based on an older Arabic compilation, and serving in its turn as groundwork for Jami's excellent Nafahat-aluns (completed in 1478; 883 A.11.). He thus paved the way for the publication of one of the earliest textbooks of the whole sect, the &dikatulhakikat, or " Garden of Truth " (1130; 525 A.11.), by Hakim Sann of Ghazni, to whom all the later Sufic poets refer as their unrivalled master in spiritual knowledge. As the most uncompromising Sufis appear the greatest pantheistic writer of all ages, Jelal ud-din Rumi (1207-1273; 604-672 A.H.; see RUMI), and his scarcely less renowned predecessor Farid ud-din `Attar, who was slain by the Moguls at the age of 114 lunar years in 1230 (627 A.H.). This prolific writer, having performed the pilgrim-age to Mecca, devoted himself to a stern ascetic life, and to the composition of Sufic works, partly in prose, as in his valuable " Biography of Eminent Mystic Divines," but mostly in the form of mathnawis (upwards of twenty in number), among which the Pandnama, or " Book of Counsels," and the Mantik-uttair, or the "Speeches of Birds," occupy the first rank. In the latter, an allegorical poem, interspersed with moral tales and pious contemplations, the final absorption of the Sufi in the deity is most ingeniously illustrated. In strong contrast to these advanced Sufis stands the greatest moral teacher of Persia, Sheikh Sa'di of Shiraz (died about 1 ro lunar years old in '292; 691 A.H.; see SA`DI), whose two best known works are the Bustin, or " Fruit-garden," and the Gulistan, or " Rose-garden." However, both have found the emperors of Delhi, 'Ala-uddin Khilji (1296–1316), his pre-comparatively few imitations—the former in the Daslurnama, decessor Feroz Shah and his successor Kutb-uddin Mubarek save or " Book of Exemplars," of Nizari of Kohistan Shah—the Miftah-ulfutuh, or " Key of Victories," the Kiran- (d. 1320; 720 A.H.), in the Dah Bab, or ussa'dain, or " The Conjunction of the Two Lucky Planets," " Ten Letters," of Katibi (d. 1434; 838 A.H.), and in the the Nuh Sipihr, or " Nine Spheres," and the love-story of Gulzar, or " Rose-bower," of Hairati (murdered 1554; Khidrkhan u Duwalrani. His other five mathnawis formed the 961 A.H.); the latter in Mu`ln-uddin Juwaini's Nigaristan, or first attempt ever made to imitate Niiami's famous Khamsah, " Picture-gallery " (1335; 735 A.H.) and Jami's Baharistan, or or five romantic epopees, and this attempt turned out so well that " Spring-garden " (1487; 892 A.H.); whereas an innumerable henceforth almost all epic poets wrote quintuples of a similar host of purely Sufic compositions followed in the wake of description. Khwaju Kirmani (d. 1352; 753 A.H.) was the next Sana'i's, 'Attar's and Jelal ud-din Rumi's mathnawis. It will aspirant to Niiami's fame, with five mathnawis, among which suffice to name a few of the most conspicuous. The Humdi u Humayun is the most popular, but he had to yield the Further 41ft+c works. Lama'at, or " Sparks," of 11.41 (d. between 1287 and palm to 'Abd-urrahman Jami (1414–1492; 817–898 A.H.), the 1309; 686 and 709 A.H.), the Zad-ulmusafirin, or last classic poet of Persia, in whose genius were And and " Store of the Wayfarers," by Husaini (d. 1318; 718 A.H.), the summed up all the best qualities of his great llrede- LaterPoets. Gulshan-i-Raz, or " Rose-bed of Mystery," by Mahmud Shabis- cessors. Many poets followed in Jami's footsteps, taxi (d. 1320; 720 A.H.), the Jam-i-Jam, or " Cup of Jamshid," first of all his nephew Hatifi (see above), and either wrote whole by Auhadi (d. 1338; 738 A.H.), the Anis-ul 'Arifin, or "Friend khamsahs or imitated at least one or other of Nizami's epopees; of the Mystics," by Kasim (Qasim)-i-Anwar (d. 1434; 837 A.H.), thus we have a Laila u Majnun, for instance, by Maktabi (1490), and others; 'Assar's Mihr u Mushtari, or " Sun and Jupiter " Hilali (see above), and Ruh-ulamin (d. 1637). But their 1376; 778 A.H.), 'tlrifi's Gui u Chaugan, or "The Ball and the efforts could not stop the growing corruption of taste, and it was Bat " (1438; 842 A.H.), Ilusn u Dil, or " Beauty and Heart," only at the court of the Mogul emperors, particularly of the by Fattahl of Nishapur (d. 1448; 852.A.H.), Sham' u Parwana, or great Akbar (1556–1605), who revived Sultan Mahmud's " round " The Candle and the Moth," by Ahli of Shiraz (1489; 894 A.H.), table," that Persian literature still enjoyed some kind of " Indian Shah u Gada, or " King and Dervish," by Hilali (put to death summer " in poets like Ghazali of Mashhad or Meshed 1532; 939 A.H.), Baha-ud-din 'Amili's (d. 162,; 1030 A.H.) (d. 1572); 'Urfi of Shiraz (d. 1591), who wrote spirited l~asidas, Nan u Halwa, or " Bread and Sweets," Shir u Shaken', or " Milk and, like his contemporaries Wahshi and Kauthari, a mathnawi, and Sugar," and many more. Farhad u Shirin; and Faieli (d. 1595), the author of the romantic During all these periods of literary activity, lyric poetry, pure poem, Nal u Daman, who also imparted new life into the ruba'i. and simple, had by no means been neglected; almost all the In Persia proper only Zulali, whose clever romance of " Sultan Lyric poetry. renowned poets since the time of Rudagi had sung in Mahmud and his favourite Ayaz " (1592) is widely read in the endless strains the pleasures of love and wine, the East, Sa'ib (d. 1677), who is commonly called the creator of a beauties of nature, and the almighty power of the Creator; but new style in lyric poetry, and, among the most modern, Hatif it was left to the incomparable genius of IJafiz (d. 1389; 791 A.H.; of Isfahan, the singer of sweet and tasteful odes (died about see IJAF12) to give to the world the most perfect models of lyric 1785), deserve a passing notice. composition; and the lines he had laid down were more or less But we cannot conclude our brief survey of the national strictly followed by all the ghazal-writers of the 9th literature of Persia without calling attention to the rise of the Ghazal- writers. and loth centuries of the Hegira—by Salman of Sawa drama, which has only sprung up in the beginning of The Drama. (d. about 1377; 779 A.H.), who excelled besides in the nineteenth century. Like the Greek drama and kasida and mathnawi; Kamal Khujandi (d. 1400; 803 A.H.), the mysteries of the European middle ages, it is the offspring of a IJafiz's friend, and protege of Sultan IJosain (1374-1.382 A.D.); purely religious ceremony, which for centuries has been performed Mahommed Shirin Maghribi (d. at Tabriz in 14(36; 809 A.H.), an annually during the first ten days of the month Muharram—the intimate friend of Kamal; Ni'mat-ullah Wall (d. 1431; 834 A.R.), recital of mournful lamentations in memory of the tragic fate the founder of a special religious order; Kasim-i-Anwar (see of the house of the caliph 'Ali, the hero of the Shi'itic Persians. above); Amir Shahi (d. 1453; 857 A.H.), of the princely family Most of these passion-plays deal with the slaughter of 'Ali's son of the Sarbadars of Sabzewar; Banna'i (d. 1512; 918 A.H.), IJosain and his family in the battle of Kerbela. But lately this who also wrote a romantic poem, Bahram u Bihruz; Baba narrow range of dramatic subjects has been considerably widened, Fighani of Shiraz (d. 1519; 925 A.H.), usually called the " Little Biblical stories and even Christian legends have been brought Hafiz "; Nargisi (d. 1531; 938 A.H.); Lisanl (d. 1534; 941 A.H.), upon the Persian stage; and there is a fair prospect of a further who himself was imitated by Damiri of Isfahan, Muhtasham development of this most interesting and important movement. Kash and Wahshi Bafiki (all three died in the last decade of the (See further DRAMA: Persian.) loth century of the Hegira); Ahli of Shiraz (d. 1535; 942 A.H.), In the various departments of general Persian literature not author of the Sihr i-Ilaldl, or "Lawful Witchcraft," which, like touched upon in the foregoing pages the same wonderful activity Katibi's (d. 1434; 838 A.H.) Majma'-ulbahrain, of the " Con- has prevailed as in the realm of poetry and fiction, Historical fluence of the Two Seas," can be read in two different metres; since the first books on history and medicine appeared works. Nau'i (d. 16ro; 1019 A.H.), who wrote the charming romance of under the Samanids (see above). The most important a Hindu princess who burned herself in Akbar's reign with her section is that of historical works, which, although deficient in deceased husband on the funeral pile, called Sus u Gudaz, or sound criticism and often spoiled by a highly artificial style, " Burning and Melting," &c. Among the immediate predeces- supply us with most valuable materials for our own research. sors of Hafiz in the 8th century of the Hegira, in which also Ibn Quite unique in this respect are the numerous histories of India, Yamin, the great lcit'a-writer,' flourished, the highest fame was from the first invasion of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to the English gained by the two poets of Delhi, Amir IJasan and Amir Khosrau. conquest, and even to the first decades of the present century, The latter, who died in 1325 (725 A.H.), two years before his most of which have been described and partly translated in the friend IJasan, occupies the foremost place among all the Persian eight volumes of Sir H. M. Elliot's History of India (1867–1878). poets of India by the richness of his imagination, his graphic Persian writers have given us, besides, an immense variety of style, and the historical interest attached to his writings. Five universal histories of the world, with many curious and note-extensive diwans testify to his versatility in all branches of lyric worthy data (see, among others, Mirkhond's and Khwandamir's poetry, and nine large mathnawis to his mastership in the epic works under MiRKHOND); histories of Mahomet and the first line. Four of the latter are poetical accounts of the reigns of caliphs, partly translated from Arabic originals, which have been ' A lcit'a or mulcatta'a is a poem containing moral reflections, and lost; detailed accounts of all the Persian dynasties, from the differs from the basida and ghazal only by the absence of a matla' Ghaznevids to the still reigning Kajars, of Jenghiz Khan and or initial distich. the Moguls (in Juwaini's and Wassaf's elaborate Ta'rikhs), and Fottto re. Hama, the T ittinama, or " Tales of a Parrot," and others, and at the translations of standard works of Sanskrit literature, the epopees of the Ramayana and Mahabadrala, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Yoga-Vasishtha, and numerous Purdnas and Upanishads, for which we are mostly indebted to the emperor Akbar's indefatigable zeal. Rudagi's Vorlaufer and Zeitgenossen," in Morgenlandische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1875) ; of Kisa'i's songs, Firdousi's lyrics, and Abu Sa'id b. Abu 'l-Khair's ruba'is, in Sitzungsberichte der bayr. Akademie (1872, p. 275 seq.; 1873, p. 622 seq. ; 1874, p. 133 seq. 1875, p. 145 seq. ; and 1878, p. 38 seq.) ; of Avicenna's Persian poems, in Gottinger Nachrichten ((1875, p. 555 seq.) ; and of Asadi and his munakarat, in " Persische Tenzonen,' Verhandlungen des 5ten Orientalisten-Congresses (Berlin, 1882, pt. ii., first half, P. 48 seq.); H. Zotenberg's Chronique de Tabari (Paris, 1867–1874); Jurjani's Wis u Raman, ed. in the Bibl. Indica (1864) (trans. into German by C. H. Graf in Zeitschrift der morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, xxiii. 375 seq.) ; and A. de B. Kasimirski's Specimen du diwan de Menoutchehri (Versailles, 1876). On Khakani, see N. de Khanykoff's M6moire," in Journal asiatique, 6th series, vol. iv. p. 137 seq. and vol. v. p. 296 seq., and C. Salemann's edition of his ruba'is, with Russian trans. (Petersburg, 1875) ; on Farid uddin 'Attar, S. de Sacy's edition of the Pandnama (Paris, 1819), and Garcin de Tassy's Mantijz-uttair (Paris, 1857); on the Gulshan-i-raz, E. H. Whinfield's edition (London, 1880) ; and on Amir Khosrau's mathnawis, the abstracts given in Elliot's History of India, iii. 524 seq. German translations of Ibn Yamin were published by O. Schlechta-Wssehrd, Bruchstucke (Vienna, 1852) ; of ami's minor poems, by V. von Rosenzweig (Vienna, 1840); by Ruckert, in Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vols. v. and vi., and Zeitschrift der d. morgenl. Gesellsch., vols. ii., iv., v., vi., xxiv., xxv. and xxix.; and by M. Wickerhauser (Leipzig, 1855, and Vienna, 1858) ; German translation of Yusuf u Zalikha, by Rosenzweig (Vienna, 1824), English by R. T. H. Griffith (London, 1881); French translation of Laila u Majnun, by A. L. de Ch6zy (Paris, 1805), German by A. T. Hartmann (Leipzig, 18o7); Hilali's Konig and Derwisch," by Ethe, in Morgenland. Stud. (Leipzig, 1870, p. 197 seq.). On the Persian drama, compare J. A. de Gobineau's Religions et philosophies dans l'Asie centrale (Paris, 1866) ; A. Chodzko's Theatre persan (new ed., Paris, 1878) ; and Effie, " Persische Passionspiele," in Morgenland. Stud., p. 174 seq. (H. E.)
End of Article: LANGUAGE AND
LANGUAGE (adapted from the Fr. langage, from langue...

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.