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PIERRE ANDRE LATREILLE (1762–1833)

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Originally appearing in Volume V16, Page 275 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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PIERRE ANDRE LATREILLE (1762–1833), French naturalist, was born in humble circumstances at Brives-la-Gaillarde (Correze), on the loth of November 1762. In 1778 he entered the college Lemoine at Paris, and on his admission to priestly orders in 1786 he retired to Brives, where he devoted all the leisure which the discharge of his professional duties allowed to the study of entomology. In 1788 he returned to Paris and found means of making himself known to the leading naturalists there. His " Memoire sur les mutilles decouvertes en France," contributed to the Proceedings of the Society of Natural History in Paris, procured for him admission to that body. At the Re-volution he was compelled to quit Paris, and as a priest of conservative sympathies suffered considerable hardship, being imprisoned for some time at Bordeaux. His Precis des caracteres generiques des insectes, disposes clans un ordre naturel, appeared at Brives in 1796. In 1798 he became a corresponding member of the Institute, and at the same time was entrusted with the task of arranging the entomological collection at the recently organized Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (Jardin des Plantes); in 1814 he succeeded G. A. Olivier as member of the Academic des Sciences, and in 1821 he was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. For some time he acted as professor of zoology in the veterinary school at Alfort near Paris, and in 183o, when the chair of zoology of invertebrates at the Museum was divided after the death of Lamarck, Latreille was appointed professor of zoology of crustaceans, arachnids and insects, the chair of molluscs, worms and zoophytes being assigned to H. M. D. de Blainville. " On me donne du pain quand je n'ai plus de dents," said Tatreille, who was then in his sixty-eighth year. He died in Paris on the 6th of February 1833. In addition to the works already mentioned, the numerous works of Latreille include: Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere des crustaces el insectes (14 vols., 18oa-1805), forming part of C. N. S. Sonnini's edition of Buffon; Genera crustaceorum et insectorum, secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita (4 vols., 18o6–1807) ; Considerations generales sur l'ordre naturel des animaux composant les classes des crnstaces, des arachnides, et des insectes (181 o); Families naturelles du regne animal, exposees succinctement et dans un ordre analytique (1825); Cours d'entomologie (of which only the first volume appeared, 1831); the whole of the section Crustaces, Arachnides, Insectes," in G. Cuvier's Regne animal; besides many papers in the Annales du Museum, the Encyclopedie methodique, the Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle and elsewhere. LA TREMOILLE, an old French family which derives its name from a village (the modern La Trimouille) in the department of Vienne. The family has been known since the middle of the 11th century, and since the 14th century its members have been conspicuous in French history. Guy, sire de la Tremoille, standard-bearer of France, was taken prisoner at the battle of Nicopolis (1396), and Georges, the favourite of King Charles VII., was captured at Agincourt (1415). Louis (2), called the chevalier sans reproche, defeated and captured the duke of Orleans at the battle of Saints'Aubin-du-Cormier (1488), distinguished himself in the wars in Italy, and was killed at Pavia (1525). In 1521 Francois (2) acquired a claim on the kingdom of Naples by his marriage with Anne de Laval, daughter of Charlotte of Aragon. Louis (3) became duke of Thouars in 1563, and his son Claude turned Protestant, was created a peer of France in 1595, and married a daughter of William the Silent in 1598. To this family belonged the lines of the counts of Joigny, the marquises of Royan and counts of Olonne, and the marquises and dukes of Noirmoutier.
End of Article: PIERRE ANDRE LATREILLE (1762–1833)
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