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STRINGER LAWRENCE (1697–1775)

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Originally appearing in Volume V16, Page 308 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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STRINGER LAWRENCE (1697–1775), English soldier, was born at Hereford on the 6th of March 1697. He seems to have entered the army in 1727 and served in Gibraltar and Flanders, subsequently taking part in the battle of Culloden. In 1748, with the rank of major and the reputation of an experienced soldier, he went out to India to command the East India Company's troops. Dupleix's schemes for the French conquest of southern India were on the point of taking effect, and not long after his arrival at Fort St David, Stringer Lawrence was actively engaged. He successfully foiled an attempted French surprise at Cuddalore, but subsequently was captured by a French cavalry patrol at Ariancopang near Pondicherry and kept prisoner till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1749 he was in command at the capture of Devicota. On this occasion Clive served under him and a life-long friendship began. On one occasion, when Clive had become famous, he honoured the creator of the Indian army by refusing to accept a sword of honour unless one was voted to Lawrence also. In 1750 Lawrence returned to England, but in 1752 he was back in India. Here he found Clive in command of a force intended for the relief of Trichinopoly. As senior officer Lawrence took over the command, but was careful to allow Clive every credit for his share in the subsequent operations, which included the relief of Trichinopoly and the surrender of the entire French besieging force. In 1752 with an inferior force he defeated the French at Bahur (Behoor) and in 1753 again relieved Trichinopoly. For the next seventeen months he fought a series of actions in defence of this place, finally arranging a three months' armistice, which was afterwards converted into a conditional treaty. He had commanded in chief up to the arrival of the first detachment of regular forces of the crown. In 1757 he served in the operations against Wandiwash, and in 1758–1759 was in command of Fort St George during the siege by the French under Lally. In 1759 failing health compelled him to return to England. He resumed his command in 1761 as major-general and commander-in-chief. Clive supplemented his old friend's inconsiderable income by settling on him an annuity of 500 a year. In 1765 he presided over the board charged with arranging the reorganization of the Madras army, and he finally retired the following year. He died in London on the loth of January 1775. The East India Company erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey. See Biddulph, Stringer Lawrence (1901).
End of Article: STRINGER LAWRENCE (1697–1775)
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