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LECH (Licus)

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Originally appearing in Volume V16, Page 354 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LECH (Licus), a river of Germany in the kingdom of Bavaria, 177 M. long, with a drainage basin of 2550 sq. m. It rises in the Vorarlberg Alps, at an altitude of 6120 ft. It winds out of the gloomy limestone mountains, flows in a north-north-easterly direction, and enters the plains at Fussen (2580 ft.), where it forms rapids and a fall, then pursues a northerly course past Augsburg, where it receives the Wertach, and joins the Danube from the right just below Donauworth (1330 ft.). It is not navigable, owing to its torrential character and the gravel beds which choke its channel. 1liore than once great historic events have been decided upon its banks. On the Lechfeld, a stony waste some miles long, between the Lech and the Wertach, the emperor Otto I. defeated the Hungarians in August 955. Tilly, in attempting to defend the passage of the stream at Rain against the forces of Gustavus Adolphus, was fatally wounded, on the 5th of April 1632. The river was formerly the boundary between Bavaria and Swabia. LE CHAMBON, or LE CHAMBON-FEUGEROLLES, a town of east-central France in the department of Loire, 72 m. S.W. of St Etienne by rail, on the Ondaine, a tributary of the Loire. Pop. (1906) town, 7525; commune, 12,011. Coal is mined in the neighbourhood, and there are forges, steel works, manufactures of tools and other iron goods, and silk mills. The feudal castle of Feugerolles on a hill to the south-east dates in part from the 11th century. Between Le Chambon and St Etienne is La Ricamarie (pop. of town 5289) also of importance for its coal-mines. Many of the galleries of a number of these mines are on fire, probably from spontaneous combustion. According to popular tradition these fires date from the time of the Saracens; more authentically from the 15th century. LE CHAPELIER, ISAAC RENE GUY (1754-1794), French politician, was born at Rennes on the 12th of June 1754, his father being bdtonnier of the corporation of lawyers in that town. He entered his father's profession, and had some success as an orator. In 1789 he was elected as a deputy to the States General by the Tiers-Etat of the senechaussee of Rennes. He adopted advanced opinions, and was one of the founders of the Breton Club (see JACOBIN CLUB); his influence in the Constituent Assembly was considerable, and on the 3rd of August 1789 he was elected its president. Thus he presided over the Assembly I* during the important period following the 4th of August; he took an active part in the debates, and was a leading member of the committee which drew up the new constitution; he further presented a report on the liberty of theatres and on literary copyright. He was also conspicuous as opposing Robespierre when he proposed that members of the Constituent Assembly should not be eligible for election to the proposed new Assembly. After the flight of the king to Varennes (2oth of June 1792), his opinions became more moderate, and on the 29th of September he brought forward a motion to restrict the action of the clubs. This, together with a visit which he paid to England in 1792 made him suspect, and he was denounced on his return for conspiring with foreign nations. He went into hiding, but was discovered in consequence of a pamphlet which he published to defend himself, arrested and condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal. He was executed at Paris on the 22nd of April 1794. See A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de la constituante (2nd ed., Paris, 1905) ; R. Kerviler, Recherches et notices sur les deputes de la Bretagne aux etats generaux (2 vols., Rennes, 1888–1889) ; P. J. Levot, Biographie bretonne (2 vols., 1853–1857).
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GOTTHARD VICTOR LECHLER (1811–1888)

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