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LEMBERG (Pol. Lwdw, Lat. Leopolis)

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Originally appearing in Volume V16, Page 410 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LEMBERG (Pol. Lwdw, Lat. Leopolis), the capital of the crowniand of Galicia, Austria, 468 m. N.W. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (Ig0o) 159,618, of whom over 8o% were Poles, 10% Germans, and 8% Ruthenians; nearly 30% of the population were Jews. According to population Lemberg is the fourth city in the Austrian empire, coming after Vienna, Prague and Trieste. Lemberg is situated on the small river 'Peltew, an affluent of the Bug, in a valley in the Sarmatian plateau, and is surrounded by hills. It is composed of the inner town and of four suburbs. The inner town was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were subjects might be treated without offence. The Pinto (1800) was transformed into pleasure grounds in 1811. Lemberg is the the result of a wager that no further dramatic innovations were residence of Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic and Armenian possible after the comedies of Beaumarchais. It is a historical archbishops, and contains three cathedrals. The Roman comedy on the subject of the Portuguese revolution of 1640. Catholic cathedral was finished by Casimir IV. in 1480 in Gothic This play was construed as casting reflections on the first consul, style; near it is a chapel (1609) remarkable for its architecture who had hitherto been a firm friend of Lemercier. His extreme and sculpture. The Greek cathedral, built in 1740—1779 in the freedom of speech finally offended Napoleon, and the quarrel Basilica style, is situated on a height which dominates the town. proved disastrous to Lemercier's fortune for the time. None The Armenian cathedral was built in 1437 in the Armenian- of his subsequent work fulfilled the expectations raised by Byzantine style. The Dominican church, built in 1749 after Agamemnon, with the exception perhaps of Fredegonde et the model of St Peter's at Rome, contains a monument by Brunelzaut (1821). In 1810 he was elected to the Academy, Thorvaldsen to the Countess Dunin-Borkowska; the Greek where he consistently opposed the romanticists, refusing to St Nicholas church was built in 1292; and the Roman Catholic give his vote to Victor Hugo. In spite of this, he has some St Mary church was built in 1363 by the first German settlers. pretensions to be considered the earliest of the romantic school. The town hall (1828–1837) with a tower 250 ft. high is situated His Christophe Colomb (1809), advertised on the playbill as a in the middle of a square: Also notable are the hall of the comedie shakespirienne (sic), represented the interior of a ship, estates (18777–1881), the industrial museum, the theatre, the and showed no respect for the unities. Its numerous innovations palace of the Roman Catholic archbishop and several educational provoked such violent disturbances in the audience that one establishments. There are many beautiful private buildings, person was killed and future representations had to be guarded broad and well-paved streets, numerous squares and public by the police. Lemercier wrote four long and ambitious epic gardens. At the head of the educational institutions stands the poems: Homere, Alexandre (18o1), L'Atlantiade, ou la theogonie university, founded in 1784 by Joseph II., transformed into a newtonienne (1812) and Moise (1823), as well as an extraordinary lycee in 1803, and restored and reorganized in 1817. Since 1871 Panhypocrisiade (1819–1832), a distinctly romantic production the language of instruction has been Polish, and in 1901 the in twenty cantos, which has the sub-title Spectacle infernal du university had fro lecturers, and was attended by 2060 students. X VP siecle. In it 16th-century history, with Charles V. and There are also a polytechnic, gymnasia—for Poles, Ruthenians Francis I. as principal personages, is played out on an imaginary and Germans respectively—seminaries for priests, training stage by demons in the intervals of their sufferings. Lemercier colleges for teachers, and other special and technical schools. died on the 7th of June 1840 in Paris. In Lemberg is the National Institute founded by Count Ossolinski, LEMERY, NICOLAS (1645–1715), French chemist, was born at which contains a library of books and manuscripts relating Rouen on the 17th of November 1645. After learning pharmacy chiefly to the history and literature of Poland, valuable anti- in his native town he became a pupil of C. Glaser's in Paris, and quarian and scientific collections, and a printing establishment; then went to Montpellier, where he began to lecture on chemistry. also the Dzieduszycki museum with collections of natural He next established a pharmacy in Paris, still continuing his history and ethnography relating chiefly to Galicia. Industrially lectures, but in 1683, being a Calvinist, he was obliged to retire and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, to England. In the following year he returned to France, and its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron turning Catholic in 1686 was able to reopen his shop and resume wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, his lectures. He died in Paris on the 19th of June 1715. Lemery chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, did not concern himself much with theoretical speculations, corn-milling and brick and tile making. It has important I but holding chemistry to be a demonstrative science, confined commerce in linen, flax, hemp, wool and seeds, and a considerable I himself to the straightforward exposition of facts and experiments. transit trade. Of the well-wooded hills which surround Lemberg, In consequence, his lecture-room was thronged with people of all sorts, anxious to hear a man who shunned the barren obscurities of the alchemists, and did not regard the quest of the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life as the sole end of his science. Of his Cours de chymie (1675) he lived to see 13 editions, and for a century it maintained its reputation as a standard work. His other publications included Pharmacopee universelle (1697), Traite universel des drogues simples (1698), Traite de l'antimoine (1707), together with a number of papers contributed the most important is the Franz-Josef-Berg to the N.E., with an altitude of 1310 ft. Several beautiful parks have been laid out on this hill. Leopolis was founded about 1259 by the Ruthenian prince Leo Danilowicz, who moved here his residence from Halicz in 1270. From Casimir the Great, who captured it in 1340, it received the Magdeburg rights, and for almost two hundred years the public records were kept in German. In 1412 it became the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric, and from 1432 until to the French Academy, one of which offered a chemical and 1772 it was the capital of the Polish province of Reussen (Terra physical explanation of underground fires, earthquakes, lightning and thunder. He discovered that heat is evolved when iron filings and sulphur are rubbed together to a paste with water, and the artificial volcan de Lemery was produced by burying underground a considerable quantity of this mixture, which he regarded as a potent agent in the causation of volcanic action. His son Lours (1677–1743) was appointed physician at the Hotel Dieu in 1710, and became demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in 1731. He was the author of a Traite des aliments (1702), and of a Dissertation sur la nature des os (1704), as well as of a number of papers on chemical topics.
End of Article: LEMBERG (Pol. Lwdw, Lat. Leopolis)
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