See also:born at
See also:Rudolstadt on the 19th of
See also:March 1799, his
See also:father being
See also:chaplain to the garrison there . His
See also:family, not of
See also:Italian origin—as he himself was inclined to believe on the strength of family tradition—but established in
See also:Lower Saxony so early as the 16th century, was typical of the German upper
See also:middle classes, and this fact, together with the strongly religious atmosphere in which he was brought up and his early
See also:enthusiasm for nature, largely determined the bent of his mind . The taste for
See also:historical study was, moreover, early instilled into him by the eminent philologist Karl Wilhelm
See also:Gottling (1793-1869), who in 1816 became a
See also:master at the Rudolstadt gymnasium . From 1816 to 1819
See also:Leo studied at the
See also:universities of
See also:Jena and
See also:Gottingen, devoting himself more especially to
See also:philology and
See also:theology . At this
See also:time the universities were still agitated by the Liberal and patriotic aspirations aroused by the War of Liberation; at Breslau Leo fell under the influence of Jahn, and joined the
See also:political gymnastic association (Turuverein); at Jena he attached himself to the
See also:radical wing of the German Bursche,nschaft, the so-called " Black
See also:Band," under the leadership of Karl
See also:Follen . The
See also:murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and fromthis time he tended, under the influence of the writings of
See also:Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a
See also:mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction . So early as
See also:April 1819, at Gottingen, he had fallen under the influence of Karl Ludwig von Haller's Handbuch der allgemeinen Staatenkunde (18o8), a text-
See also:book of the
See also:counter-Revolution . On the Irth of May 1820 he took his
See also:doctor's degree; in the same
See also:year he qualified as Privatdozent at the university of
See also:Erlangen . For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the
See also:free Lombard cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history . His
See also:interest in it was greatly stimulated by a
See also:journey to Italy in 1823; in 1824 he returned to the subject, and, as the result, published in five volumes a history of the Italian states (1829–1832) . Meanwhile he had been established (1822-1827) as Dozent at Berlin, where he came in contact with the leaders of German thought and was somewhat spoilt by the flattering attentions of the highest Prussian society . Here, too, it was that Hegel'sphilosophy of history made a deep impression upon him .
It was at
See also:Halle, however, where he remained for
See also:forty years (1$28-1868), that he acquired his fame as an academical teacher . His wonderful power of exposition, aided by a remarkable memory, is attested by the most various witnesses . In 1830 he became ordinary
See also:professor . In addition to his lecturing, Leo found time for much
See also:literary and political
See also:work . He collaborated in the Jahrbiicher fur Wissenschaftliche Kritikfrom its foundation in 1827 until the publication was stopped in 1846 . As a critic of
See also:independent views he won the approval of Goethe; on the other
See also:hand, he fell into violent controversy withRanke about questions connected with Italian history . Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rational-ism, Hegel remaining his
See also:guide in religion as in
See also:practical politics and the treatment of history . It was not till 1838 that Leo's polemical work Die Hegelingen proclaimed his
See also:breach with the radical developments of the philosopher's later disciples; a breach which
See also:developed into opposition to the philosopher him-self . Under the 'impression of the
See also:July revolution in
See also:Paris and of the orthodox and pietistic influences at Halle, Leo's political convictions were henceforth dominated by reactionary principles . As a friend of the Prussian " Camarilla " and of
See also:William IV. he collaborated especially in the high conservative Politisches Wochenblatt, which first appeared in 1831, as well as in the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, the Kreuzzeitung and the Volksblatt fur Stadt and
See also:Land . In all this his critics scented an inclination towards Catholicism; and Leo did actually glorify the counter-Reformation, e.g. in his History of the
See also:Netherlands (2 vols . 1832–1835)• His other historical
See also:works also, notably his Universalgeschichte (6 vols., 1835–1844), display a very otiesided point of view .
When, however, in connexion with the
See also:quarrel about the archbishopric of Cologne (1837), political Catholicism raised its
See also:head menacingly, Leo turned against it with extreme violence in his open
See also:letter (1838) to Goerres, its foremost
See also:champion . On the other hand, he took a lively
See also:part in the politico-religious controversies within the
See also:fold of Prussian Protestantism . Leo was by nature highly excitable and almost insanely passionate, though at the same time strictly honourable, unselfish, and in private intercourse even gentle . During the last year of his
See also:life his mind suffered rapid decay, of which signs had been apparent so early as 1868 . He died at Halle on the 24th of April 1878 . In addition to the works already mentioned, he
See also:left behind an account of his early life (Meine Jugendzeit,
See also:Gotha, 1880) which is of interest . See
See also:English Historical Review, i . (1886); H .
See also:Haupt, Karl Follen und die Giessener Schwarzen (
See also:Giessen, 1907) ; W . Herbst, Deutsch-Evangelische Bldtter, Bd . 3; P . Kragelin, H .
Leo, vol. i . (1779-1844) (
See also:Leipzig, 1908); P . Kraus, Allgemeine Konservative Monatsschrift, Bd . 5o u . 51; R . M .
See also:Meyer, Gestalten and Probleme (1904) ; W .
See also:Schrader, Geschichte der Friedrichs- Universitai in Halle (Berlin, 1894); C . Varrentrapp, Historische Zeitschrift, Bd . 92; F . X . Wegele, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Bd .
18 (1883); Geschichte der deutschen Historiographie (1885); G .
See also:Wolf, Einffiihrung in das Studium der neueren Geschichte (1910) . Leo's Rectitudines singularum personarum nebst einer einleitenden Abhandlung fiber Landsiedelung, Landbau, gutsherrliche and bauerliche Verhaltnisse der Angelsachsen, was translated into English by Lord Acton (1852) . U .
BROTHER LEO (d. c. 1270)
JOHANNES LEO (c. 1494-1552)
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