LILY , Lilium, the typical genus of the botanical
See also:Liliaceae, embracing nearly eighty
See also:species, all confined to the
See also:northern hemisphere, and widely distributed throughout the
See also:north temperate zone . The earliest in cultivation were described in 1597 by
See also:Gerard (Herball, p . 146), who figures eight kinds of true lilies, which include L.
See also:album (L. candidum) and a variety, bizantinum, two umbellate forms of the type L. bulbiferum, named L. aureum and L. cruentum latifolium, and three with pendulous
See also:flowers, apparently forms of the martagon lily .
See also:Parkinson, in his Paradisus (1629), described five varieties of martagon, six of umbellate kinds—two
See also:white ones, and L. pomponium, L. chalcedonicum, L. carniolicum and L. pyrenaicum —together with one
See also:American, L. canadense, which had been introduced in 1629 . For the
See also:ancient and
See also:history of the lily, see M. de Cannart d'Hamale's Monographie historique et litteraire
See also:des lis (
See also:Malines, 1870) . Since that
See also:period many new species have been added . The latest authorities for description and
See also:classification of the genus are J . G .
See also:Baker (" Revision of the Genera and Species of Tulipeae," Journ. of Linn .
See also:Soc. xiv. p . 211, 1874), and J . H .
Elwes (Monograph of the Genus Lilium, r88o), who first tested all the species under cultivation, and has published every one beautifully figured by W . H .Fitch, and some hybrids . With respect to the production of hybrids, the genus is remarkable for its power of resisting the influence of
See also:foreign pollen, for the seedlings of any species, when crossed, generally resemble that which bears them . A
See also:good account of the new species and
See also:principal varieties discovered since 188o,with much information on the cultivation of lilies and the diseases to which they are subject, will be found in the
See also:report of the
See also:Conference on Lilies, in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1901 . The new species include a number discovered in central and western
See also:China by Dr Augustine
See also:Henry and other collectors; also several from
See also:Japan and California . The structure of the flower represents the
See also:simple type of mono-cotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three
See also:free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated
See also:pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds . In
See also:form, the flower assumes three types:
See also:trumpet-shaped, with a more or less elongated
See also:tube, e.g . L. longiflorum and L. candidum; an open form with spreading perianth leaves, e.g . L. auratum; or assuming a pendulous
See also:habit, with the tips strongly reflexed, e.g. the martagon type . All have scaly bulbs, which in three west American species, as L . Humboldli, are remarkable for being somewhat intermediate between a bulb and a creeping rhizome .
L. bulbiferum and its
See also:allies produce aerial reproductive bulbils in the axils of the leaves . The bulbs of several species are eaten, such as of L. avenaceum in
See also:Kamchatka, of L . Martagon by the Cossacks, and of L. tigrinum, the " tiger lily," in China and Japan . Medicinal uses were ascribed to the species, but none appear to have any marked properties in this respect . The white lily, L. candidum, the
See also:Miami of the Greeks, was one of the commonest
See also:garden flowers of antiquity, appearing in the poets from
See also:Homer downwards side by side with the
See also:rose and the
See also:violet . According to Hehn,
See also:roses and lilies entered
See also:Greece from the east by way of
See also:Thrace and
See also:Macedonia (Kulturpflanzen and Hausthiere, 3rd ed., P . 217) . The word Xdpwv itself, from which lilium is. derived by assimilation of consonants, appears to be Eranian (Ibid. p . 527), and according to ancient etymologists (
See also:Lagarde, Ges . Abh. p . 227) the
See also:town of Susa was connected with the Persian name of the lily si2san (Gr. vo ktov, Heb. shOshan) . Mythologically the white lily, Rosa Junonis, was fabled to have sprung from the milk of
See also:Hera .
As the plant of purity it was contrasted with the rose of
See also:Aphrodite . The word Kptvov, on the other
See also:hand, included red and
See also:purple lilies, Plin . H.N. xxi . 5 (II, 12), the red lily being best known in
See also:Syria and
See also:Judaea (Phaselis) . This perhaps is the " red lily of Constantinople " of Gerard, L. chalcedonicum . The lily of the Old Testament (shoshan) may be conjectured to be a red lily from the simile in Cant. v . 13, unless the allusion is to the fragrance rather than the
See also:colour of the lips, in which case the white lily must be thought of . The " lilies of the
See also:field," Matt. vi . 28, are Kptva, and the comparison of their beauty with royal robes suggests their
See also:identification with the red Syrian lily of Pliny . Lilies, however, are not a conspicuous feature in the
See also:flora of
See also:Palestine, and the red
See also:anemone (Anemone coronaria), with which all the
See also:hill-sides of Galilee are dotted in the
See also:spring, is perhaps more likely to have suggested the figure . For the lily in the pharmacopoeia of the ancients see
See also:Adams's Paul .
See also:Aegineta, iii .
196 . It was used in unguents and against the bites of
See also:snakes, &c . In the
See also:middle ages the flower continued to be
See also:common and was taken as the
See also:symbol of heavenly purity . The three
See also:golden lilies of France are said to have been originally three
See also:lance-heads . Lily of the valley, Convallaria majalis, belongs to a different tribe (Asparagoideae) of the same order . It grows
See also:wild in woods in some parts of England, and in
See also:Europe, northern
See also:Asia and the Alleghany Mountains of North
See also:America . The leaves and flower-scapes spring from an underground creeping
See also:stem . The small pendulous
See also:bell-shaped flowers contain no
See also:honey but are visited by bees for the pollen . The word " lily " is loosely used in connexion with many
See also:plants which are not really liliums at all, but belong to genera which are Madonna or White Lily (Lilium candidum) . About } nat.
See also:size . quite distinct botanically . Thus, the
See also:Lent lily is
See also:Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus; the
See also:African lily is Agapanthus umbellatus; the
See also:Belladonna lily is Amaryllis Belladonna (q.v.); the Jacobaea lily is Sprekelia formosissima; the Mariposa lily is Calochortus; the lily of the Incas is Alstroemeria pelegrina; St
See also:Bernard's lily is Anthericum Liliago; St
See also:Bruno's lily is Anthericum (or Paradisia') Liliastrum; the
See also:water lily is Nymphaea
See also:elba; the Arum lily is
See also:Richardia africana; and there are many others .
The true lilies are so numerous and varied that nogeneral cultural instructions will be alike suitable to all . Some species, as L . Martagon, candidum, chalcedonicum, Szovitzianum (or
See also:colchicum), bulbiferum, croceum, Henryi, pomponium—the " Turk's cap lily," and others, will grow in almost any good garden
See also:soil, and succeed admirably in
See also:loam of a rather heavy character, and dislike too much
See also:peat . But a compost of peat, loam and
See also:leaf-soil suits L. auratum, Brownii, concolor, elegans, giganteum, japonicum, longiflorum, monadelphum, pardalinum, speciosum, and the tiger lily (L. tigrinum) well, and a larger proportion of peat is indispensable for the beautiful American L. superbum and canadense . The margin of
See also:rhododendron beds, where there are sheltered recesses amongst the plants, suits many of the more delicate species well, partial shade Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis) . About i nat. size . and shelter of some kind being essential . The bulbs should be planted from 6 to to in . (according to size) below the
See also:surface, which should at once be mulched over with
See also:half-decayed leaves or coconut fibre to keep out
See also:frost . The
See also:noble L. auratum, with its large white flowers, having a yellow
See also:band and numerous red or purple spots, is a magnificent plant when grown to perfection; and so are the varieties called rubro-vittatum and cruentum, which have the central band
See also:crimson instead of yellow; and the broad-petalled platyphyllum, and its almost pure white sub-variety called virginale . Of L. speciosum (well known to most gardeners as lancifolium), the true typical form and the red-spotted and white varieties are
See also:grand plants for
See also:late summer blooming in the conservatory . The tiger lily, L. tigrinum, and its varieties Fortunei, splendidum and flore-plena, are amongst the best species for the flower garden; L .
Thunbergianum and its many varieties being also good border flowers . The
See also:pretty L . Leichtlinii and L. colchicum (or Szovitzianum) with drooping yellow flowers and the
See also:scarlet drooping-flowered L. tenuifolium make up, with those already mentioned, a series of the finest
See also:hardy flowers of the summer garden . The
See also:Indian L. giganteum is perfectly distinct in character, having broad heart-shaped leaves, and a noble stem 10 to 14 ft. high, bearing a dozen or more large deflexed,
See also:funnel-shaped, white, purple-stained flowers; L. cordifolium (China and Japan) is similar in character, but dwarfer in habit . For pot culture, the soil should consist of three parts turfy loam to -one of leaf-
See also:mould and thoroughly rotted manure, adding enough pure grit to keep the compost porous . If leaf-mould is not at hand, turfy peat may be substituted for it . The plants should be potted in
See also:October . The pots should be plunged in a
See also:frame and protected from frost, and about May may be removed to a sheltered and
See also:LIMA moderately shady place out-doors to remain till they flower, wheq they may be removed to the greenhouse . This treatment suits the gorgeous L. auratum, the splendid varieties of L. speciosum (lancifolium) and also the chaste-flowering trumpet-tubed L. longiflorum and its varieties . Thousands of bulbs of such lilies as longiflorum and speciosum are now retarded in refrigerators and taken out in batches for greenhouse
See also:work as required . Diseases.—Lilies are, under certain conditions favourable to the development of the disease, liable to the attacks of three parasitic fungi . The most destructive is
See also:Botrytis cinerea which forms orange-
See also:brown or
See also:buff specks on the stems, pedicels, leaves and flower-buds, which increase in size and become covered with a delicate
See also:grey mould, completely destroying or disfiguring the parts attacked .
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during thewinter producing a new
See also:crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh . For prevention, the surface soil covering bulbs should be removed every autumn and replaced by soil mixed with kainit; manure for mulching should also be mixed with kainit, which acts as a steriliser . If the fungus appears on the foliage spray with potassium sulphide solution (2 oz. in 3 gallons of water) . Uromyces Erythronii, a
See also:rust, sometimes causes consider-able injury to the foliage of species of Lilium and other bulbous plants, forming large discoloured blotches on the leaves . The diseased sterns should be removed and burned before the leaves fall; as the bulb is not attacked the plant will start growth next
See also:season free from disease . Rhizopus necans is sometimes the cause of extensive destruction of bulbs . The fungus attacks injured roots and afterwards passes into the bulb which becomes brown and finally rots . The fungus hibernates in the soil and enters through broken or injured roots, hence care should be taken when removing the bulbs that the roots are injured as little as possible . An excellent packing material for dormant buds is coarsely crushed
See also:charcoal to which has been added a sprinkling of flowers of
See also:sulphur . This prevents infection from outside and also destroys any spores or fungus mycelium that may have been packed away along with the bulbs . When cultivated in greenhouses liliums are subject to attack from
See also:aphides (
See also:green fly) in the early stages of growth . These pests can be kept in check by syringing with
See also:nicotine, soft-
See also:soap and
See also:quassia solutions, or by " vaporising " two or three evenings in succession, afterwards syringing the plants with clear tepid water .
LILYE, or LILY, WILLIAM (c. 1468-1522)
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