Online Encyclopedia

LIST OF

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 243 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LIST OF WAGNER'S WORKS The following are Wagner's operas and music-dramas, apart from the unpublished Die Hochzeit (three numbers only), Die Feen, and Das Liebesverbot (Das Liebesverbot was disinterred in 1910). 1. Rienzi, der letzte der Tribunen: grosse tragische Oper; 5 acts (1838-1840). 2. Der fliegende Hollander: romantische Oper; I act, afterwards cut into 3 (1641). 3. Tannhduser and der Sangerkrieg auf Wartburg: romantische Oper; 3 acts (libretto, 1843; music, 1844-1845; new Venusberg music, 186o-1861). 4. Lohengrin: romantische Oper; 3 acts (libretto, 1845; music, 1846-1848). This is the last work Wagner calls by the title of Opera. 5. Das Rheingold, prologue in 4 scenes to Der Ring des Nibelungen; ein Biihnenfestspiel (poem written last of the series, which was begun in 1848 and finished in 1851-1852; music, 1853-1854)• 6. Die Walkiire: der Ring des Nibelungen, erster Tag; 3 acts (score finished, 1856). 7. Tristan and Isolde; 3 acts (poem written in 1857; music, 18J7-1859). 8. Siegfried: der Ring des Nibelungen, zweiter Tag; 3 acts, the first two nearly finished before Tristan, the rest between 1865 and 1869. 9. Die ,Meistersinger von Nurnberg; 3 acts (sketch of play, 1845; poem, 1861-1862; music, 1862-1867). 10. Gotterdammerung: der Ring des Nibelungen, driller Tag; introduction and 3 acts (Siegfried '.r Tod already sketched dramatically in 1848; music, 187o-1874). 11. Parsifal: ein Buhnenweihfestspiel (a solemn stage festival play), 3 acts (poem, 1876-1877; music, 1877-1882, Charfreitagszaaber already sketched in 1857). As regards other compositions, the early unpublished works include a symphony, a cantata, some incidental music to a pantomime, and several overtures, four of which have recently been discovered and produced. The important small published works are Eine Faust Overture (18J9-184o; rewritten, 1855); the Siegfried Idylle (an exquisite serenade for small orchestra on themes from the finale of Siegfried, written as a surprise for Frau Wagner in 1870); the Kaiscrmarsch (1871), the Hufdigungsmarsch (1864) for military band (the scoring of the concert-version finished by Raff); Fiinf Gediclrte (1862). a set of songs containing two studies for Tristan; and the early quasi-oratorio scene for male-voice chorus and full orchestra, Das Liebesmahl der Apastel (1843). Wagner's retouching of Gluck's Iphigenie en Aulide and his edition of Palestrina's Stabat Muter demand mention as important services to music, by no means to he classified (as in some catalogues) with the hack-work with which he kept off starvation in Paris. The collected literary works of Wagner in German fill ten volumes, and include political speeches, sketches for dramas that did not become operas, autobiographical chapters, aesthetic musical treatises and polemics of vitriolic violence. Their importance will never be comparable to that of his music; but, just as the reaction against Ruskin's ascendancy as an art-critic has coincided with an increased respect for his ethical and sociological thought, so the rebellious forces that are compelling Wagnerism, to grant music a constitution coincide with a growing admiration of his general mental powers. The prose works have been translated into English by W. A. Ellis (8 vols., 1892-1899). The translation by F. Jameson (1897) of the text of the Ring (first published in the pocket edition of the full scores) is the most wonderful tour de force yet achieved in its line. A careful reading of the score to this English text reveals nor a single false emphasis or loss of rhetorical point in the fitting of words to notes, nor a single extra note or halt in the music; and wherever the language seems stilted or absurd the original will be found to be at least equally so, while the spirit of Wagner's poetry is faithfully reflected. Such work deserves more recognition thanit is ever likely to get. Rapidly as the standard of musical translations was improving before this work appeared, no one could have foreseen what has now been abundantly verified, that the Ring can be performed in English without any appreciable loss to Wagner's art. The same translator has also published a close, purely literary version. See also ARIA, HARMONY, INSTRUMENTATION, MUSIC, OPERA, and OVERTURE. (D. F. T.)
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