See also:born in
See also:Paris on the 1st of
See also:February 18o1 . His
See also:father had been a
See also:gunner, and afterwards sergeant-major of marine
See also:artillery, in the French
See also:navy, and was deeply imbued with the revolutionary ideas of the
See also:day . Settling down as a
See also:collector of taxes, he married Sophie Johannot, a
See also:free-thinker like himself, and devoted himself to the
See also:education of his son Emile . The boy was sent to the Lycee
See also:Grand, where he had for friends
See also:Hachette and
See also:Burnouf . After he had completed his course at school, he hesitated for a
See also:time as to what profession he should adopt, and meanwhile made himself
See also:master, not only of the
See also:English and German
See also:languages, but of the classical and
See also:Sanskrit literature and
See also:philology . At last he determined to study
See also:medicine, and in 1822 entered his name as a student of medicine . He passed all his
See also:examinations in due course, and had only his thesis to prepare in
See also:order to obtain his degree as
See also:doctor when in 1827 his father died, leaving his
See also:mother absolutely without resources . He at once renounced his degree, and, while attending the lectures of P . F . O . Rayer and taking a keen
See also:interest in medicine, began teaching Latin and Greek for a livelihood . He carried a musket on the popular side in the revolution of February 183o, and was one of the
See also:guards who followed
See also:Charles X. to Rambouillet .
In 1831 he obtained an introduction to ArmandCarrel, the editor of the National, who gave him the task of
See also:reading the English and German papers for excerpts . Carrel by
See also:chance, in 1835, discovered the ability of his reader, who from that time became a
See also:constant contributor, and eventually director of the paper . In 1836 Littre began to contribute articles on all sorts of subjects to the Revue
See also:des deux mondes; in 1837 he married; and in 1839 appeared the first
See also:volume of his edition of the
See also:works of
See also:Hippocrates . The value of this
See also:work was recognized by his election the same
See also:year into the
See also:Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres . At this epoch he came across the works of Auguste Comte, the reading of which formed, as he himself said, " the
See also:cardinal point of his
See also:life," and from this time onward appears the influence of positivism on his own life, and, what is of more importance, his influence on positivism, for he gave as much to positivism as he received from it . He soon became a friend of Comte, and popularized his ideas in numerous works on the positivist philosophy . At the same time he continued his edition of Hippocrates, which was not completed till 1862, published a similar edition of Pliny's Natural
See also:History, and after 1844 took
See also:Fauriel's place on the
See also:committee engaged on the Histoire litteraire de la France, where his knowledge of the early French language and literature was invaluable . It was about 1844 that he started working on his
See also:great Dictionnaire de la langue francaise, which was, however, not to be completed till
See also:thirty years after . In the revolution of
See also:July 1848 he took
See also:part in the repression of the extreme republican party in
See also:June 1849 . His essays, contributed during this
See also:period to the National, were collected together and published under the title of Conservation, revolution et positivisme in 1852, and show a thorough acceptance of all the doctrines propounded by Comte . However, during the later years of his master's life, he began to perceive that he could not wholly accept all the dogmas or the more mystic ideas of his friend and master, but he concealed his differences of opinion, and Comte failed to perceive that his
See also:pupil had outgrown him, as he himself had outgrown his master
See also:Simon . Comte's
See also:death in 1858 freed Littre from any fear of embittering his master's later years, and he published his own ideas in his Paroles de la philosophic
See also:positive in 18J9, and at still greater length in his work in Auguste Comte ct la philosophic positive in 1863 .
See also:book he traces the origin of Comte's ideas through Turgot,
See also:Kant and Saint-Simon, then eulogizes Comte's own life, his method of philosophy, his great services to the cause and the effect of his works, and finally proceeds to show where he himself differs from him . He approved wholly of Comte's philosophy, his great
See also:laws of society and his philosophical method, which indeed he defended warmly against J . S .
See also:Mill, but declared that, while he believed in a positivist philosophy, he did not believe in a religion of humanity . About 1863, after completing his Hippocrates and his Pliny, he set to work in
See also:earnest on his French
See also:dictionary . In the same year he was proposed for the Academic Francaise, but rejected, owing to the opposition of Mgr . Dupanloup,
See also:bishop of
See also:Orleans, who denounced him in his Avertissement aux peres de famille as the chief of the French materialists . He also at this time started with G . Wyrouboff the Philosophic Positive, a review which was to embody the views of
See also:modern positivists . His life was thus absorbed in
See also:literary work till the overthrow of the
See also:empire called on him to take a part in politics . He
See also:felt himself too old to undergo the privations of the
See also:siege of Paris, and retired with his
See also:family to Britanny, whence he was summoned by M .
See also:Gambetta to
See also:Bordeaux, to lecture on history, and thence to
See also:Versailles to take his seat in the
See also:senate to which he had been chosen by the department of the
See also:Seine .
See also:December 1871 he was elected a member of the Academie Frangaise in spiteof the renewed opposition of Mgr . Dupanloup, who resigned his seat rather than receive him . Littre's Dictionary was completed in 1873 . An authoritative
See also:interpretation is given of the use of each word, based on the various meanings it had held in the past . In 1875 Littre was elected a life senator . The most notable of his productions in these years were his
See also:political papers attacking and unveiling the confederacy of the
See also:Orleanists and legitimists, and in favour of the republic, his republication of many of his old articles and books, among others the Conservation, revolution et positivisme of 1852 (which he reprinted word for word, appending a formal, categorical renunciation of many of the Comtist doctrines therein contained), and a little
See also:tract Pour la derriere foist in which he maintained his unalterable belief in materialism . When it became obvious that the old man could not live much longer, his wife and daughter, who had always been fervent Catholics, strove to convert him to their religion . He had long interviews with Pere Milleriot, a celebrated controversialist, and was much grieved at his death; but it is hardly probable he would have ever been really converted . Nevertheless, when on the point of death, his wife had him baptized, and his funeral was conducted with the
See also:rites of the Catholic
See also:Church . He died on the 2nd of June 1881 . The following are his most important works: his
See also:editions of Hippocrates (1839—1861), and of Pliny's Natural History (1848—1850); his
See also:translation of Strauss's
See also:Vie de Jesus (1839—1840), and Miiller's
See also:Manuel de physiologie (1851); his edition of the works of Armand Carrel, with notes (1854—1858); the Histoire de la langue francaise, a collection of
See also:magazine articles (1862); and his Dictionnaire de la langue francaise (1863—1872) . In the domain of science must be noted his edition, with Charles
See also:Robin, of Nysten's Dictionnaire de medicine, de chirurgie, &c .
(1855); in that of philosophy, his Analyse raisonnee du
See also:tours de philosophic positive de M . A . Comte (1845); Application de la philosophic positive au gouvernement (1849); Conservation, revolution et positivisme (1852, and ed., with supplement, 1879) ; Paroles de la philosophic positive (1859); Auguste Comte et la philosophic positive (1863) ; La Science au point de vue philosophique (1873); Fragments de philosophic et de sociologic contemporaine (1876); and his most interesting
See also:miscellaneous works, his Etudes et glanures (188o); La Verite sur la mort d'Alexandre le grand (1865); Etudes sur
See also:les barbares et le moyen dge (1867); Medecine et medecins (1871); Litterature el histoire (18i5); and Discours de reception a l'Academie francaise (1873) . For his life consult C . A . Sainte-Beuve,
See also:Notice sur M . Lithe, sa vie et ses travaux (1863) ; and Nouveaux Lundis, vol. v.; also the notice by M .
See also:Durand-Greville in the Nouvelle Revue of
See also:August 1881; E . Caro, Litlre et le positivisme (1883);
See also:Pasteur, Discours de reception at the Academy, where he succeeded Littre, and a reply by E .
See also:Renan . (H . M .
SIR THOMAS DE LITTLETON (c. 1407-1481)
LITURGY (Low Lat. liturgia; Gr. X€Zros, public, a...
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