See also:Riga, N. by
See also:Esthonia, E. by the governments of St
See also:Pskov and
See also:Vitebsk, and S. by
See also:Courland . A
See also:group of islands (Inc sq. m.) at the entrance of the Gulf of Riga, of which Oesel . Mohn, Runo and Paternoster are the largest, belong to this
See also:government . It covers an
See also:area of 18,16o sq. m., but of this the
See also:part of Lake
See also:Peipus which belongs to it occupies logo . Its
See also:surface is diversified by several plateaus, those of Haanhof and of the Livonian Aa having an
See also:elevation of 400 to 700 ft., while several summits reach Boo to loco ft. or more, The edges of the plateaus are gapped by deep valleys; the hilly
See also:tract between the
See also:Dvina and its tributary the Livonian Aa has received, from its picturesque narrow valleys, thick forests and numerous lakes, the name of " Livonian
See also:Switzerland." The
See also:plateau of Odenpah, drained by tributaries of the Embach
See also:river, which flows for 93 M. from Lake Virz-yarvi into Lake Peipus, occupies an area of 2830 sq. m., and has an average elevation of 500 ft . More than a thousand lakes are scattered over Livonia, of which that of Virz-yarvi, having a surface of
See also:rod sq. m . (115 ft. above
See also:sea-level), is the largest . Marshes and
See also:peat-bogs occupy one-tenth of the province . Of the numerous
See also:rivers, the Dvina, which flows for 90 m. along its frontier, the Pernau, Salis, Livonian Aa and Embach are navigable . The
See also:Silurian formation which covers Esthonia, appears in the
See also:northern part of Livonia, the
See also:remainder of the province consisting of Devonian strata . The whole is overlaid with glacial deposits, sometimes 400 ft. thick . The typical bottom mouth of the Dvina .
In 1186 the emissaries of thearchbishop of
See also:moraine, with erratics from Finland, extends all over the
See also:country . Glacial furrows, striae and elongated troughs are met with everywhere,
See also:running mostly from
See also:north-west to south-east, as well as ¢sar or eskers, which have the same direction . Sand-
See also:dunes cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic . No traces of marine deposits are found higher than roo or 15o ft. above the
See also:present sea-level . The
See also:soil is not very fertile . Forests cover about two-fifths of the surface . The
See also:climate is rather severe . The mean temperatures are 430 F. at Riga (winter 23°, summer 63°) and 400 at
See also:Yuriev . The winds are very variable; the average number of
See also:rainy and snowy days is 146 at Riga (rainfall 24.1 in.) . Fogs are not uncommon . The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43'4 % were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles . The estimated pop. in 1906 was 1i411,000 .
The Livs, who formerly extended east into the government of Vitebsk, have nearly all passed away . Their nativelanguage, of Finnish origin, is rapidly disappearing, their present language being a Lettish
See also:patois . In 1846 a grammar and
See also:dictionary of it were made with difficulty from the mouths of old
See also:people . The Ehsts, who resemble the Finns of Tavastland, have maintained their ethnic features, their customs,
See also:national traditions, songs and
See also:poetry, and their harmonious language . There is a marked revival of national feeling, favoured by "
See also:Young Esthonia." The prevailing religion is the Lutheran (79'8%); 14.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek
See also:Church; of the Russians, however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists) ; the
See also:Roman Catholics amount to 2'3%, and the Jews to 2% . The
See also:code was introduced in the Baltic provinces in 1835, and the use of Russian, instead of German, in official
See also:correspondence and in
See also:law courts was ordered in 1867, but not generally brought into practice . Nearly all the soil belongs to the
See also:nobility, the extent of the peasants' estates being only 15% of the entire area of the government . Serfdom was abolished in 1819, but the peasants remained under the jurisdiction of their landlords . The class of
See also:peasant proprietors being restricted to a small number of wealthy peasants, the bulk have remained tenants at will; they are very miserable, and about one-
See also:fourth of them are continually wandering in
See also:search of
See also:work . From
See also:time to time the emigration takes the shape of a mass
See also:movement, which the government stops by forcible
See also:measures . The average
See also:size of the landed estates is 9500 to 11,000 acres, far above the general average for Russia .
See also:Agriculture has reached a high degree of perfection on the estates of the landlords .
See also:principal crops are
See also:rye, oats,
See also:flax and potatoes; with some wheat,
See also:hemp and
See also:buckwheat .
See also:Dairy-farming and gardening are on the increase . Fishing in Lake Peipus gives occupation to nearly roo,000 persons, and is also carried on in the Gulf of Riga and in the rivers . Woollen,
See also:cotton and flax mills, steam
See also:flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery
See also:works, paper mills, furniture,
See also:soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief
See also:industrial establishments . Livonia carries on a large export
See also:trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax,
See also:linseed, hemp,
See also:timber and wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade .
See also:Education stands on a much higher level than elsewhere in Russia, no less than 87% of the
See also:children receiving
See also:regular instruction . The higher educational institutions include Yuriev (Dorpat) University, Riga polytechnic and a high school for the
See also:clergy . The government is divided into nine districts, the chief towns of which, with their populations in 1897, are: Riga, capital of the government (282,943) ; Arensburg, in the
See also:island of Oesel (4621) ; Yuriev or Dorpat (42,421); Fellin (7659); Pernau (12,856); Walk (10,139) ;
See also:Wenden (6327) ; Werro (4154); and Wolmar (5124) . The capital of the government is Riga . Coins of the time of
See also:Alexander the
See also:Great, found on the island of Oesel, show that the coasts of the Baltic were at an early
See also:period in commercial relation with the civilized
See also:world . The
See also:chronicle of Nestor mentions as inhabitants of the Baltic
See also:coast the Chudes, the Livs, the Narova, Letgola, Semigallians and Kors . It was probably about the 9th century that the Chudes became tributary to the Varangian-Russian states .
As they reacquired theirindependence, Yaroslav I. undertook in 1030 a
See also:campaign against them, and founded Yuriev (Dorpat) . The Germans first penetrated into Livonia in the 11th century, and in 1158 several
See also:Lubeck and
See also:Visby merchants landed at the
See also:Bremen began to preach
See also:Christianity among the Ehsts and Letts, and in 1201 the
See also:bishop of Livonia established his residence at Riga . In 1202 or 1204 Innocent III. recognized the
See also:order of
See also:Brothers of the Sword, the residence of its
See also:master being at Wenden; and the order, spreading the Christian religion by the sword among the natives, carried on from that time a series of uninterrupted
See also:wars against the Russian republics and Lithuania, as well as a struggle against the archbishop of Riga, Riga having become a centre for trade, intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov and
See also:Polotsk . The first active interference of Lithuania in the affairs of Livonia took place immediately after the great outbreak of the peasants on Oesel;
See also:Olgierd then devastated all
See also:southern Livonia . The order, having
See also:purchased the Danish part of Esthonia, in 1347, began a war against the bishop of Riga, as well as against Lithuania, Poland and Russia . The wars against those
See also:powers were terminated respectively in 1435, 1466 and 1483 . About the end of the 15th century the master of the order, Plettenberg, acquired a position of great importance, and in 1527 he was recognized as a
See also:prince of the
See also:empire by
See also:Charles V . On the other
See also:hand, the authority of the bishops of Riga was soon completely destroyed (1566) . The war of the order with
See also:Ivan IV. of Russia in 1558 led to a division of Livonia, its northern part, Dorpat included, being taken by Russia, and the southern part falling under the dominion of Poland . From that time (1560 Livonia formed a subject of dispute between Poland and Russia, the latter only formally abdicating its rights to the country in 1582 . In 1621 it was the theatre of a war between Poland and Sweden, and was conquered by the latter power, enjoying thus for twenty-five years a milder
See also:rule . In 1654, and again at the beginning of the 18th century, it became the theatre of war between Poland, Russia and Sweden, and was finally conquered by Russia .
The official concession was confirmed by the treaty of Nystad in 1721 . See E .
See also:Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Esth-, and Kurlands (2nd ed., Revel, 1897—1904) and Geschichte von Livland (
See also:Gotha, 1905, &c.) . (P . A . K . ; J . T .
LIVY [Thus L1v1us] (59 B.C.—A.D: 17)
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