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Originally appearing in Volume V16, Page 840 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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1ST BARON HENRY BROUGHAM LOCH LOCH (1827-1900), British colonial administrator, son of James Loch, M.P., of Drylaw, Midlothian, was born on the 23rd of May 1827. He entered the navy, but at the end of two years quitted it for the East India Company's military service, and in 1842 obtained a commission in the Bengal Light Cavalry. In the Sikh war in 1845 he was given an appointment on the staff of Sir Hugh Gough, and served throughout the Sutlej campaign. In 1852 he became second in command of Skinner's Horse. At the outbreak of the Crimean war in 1854, Loch severed his connexion with India, and obtained leave to raise a body of irregular Bulgarian cavalry, which he commanded throughout the war. In 1857 he was appointed attache to Lord Elgin's mission to the East, was present at the taking of Canton, and in 1858 brought home the treaty of Yedo. In April 186o he again accompanied Lord Elgin to China, as secretary of the new embassy sent to secure the execution by China of her treaty engagements. The embassy was backed up by an allied Anglo-French force. Wit4. Harry S. Parkes he negotiated the surrender of the Taku forts. During the advance on Peking Loch was chosen with Parkes to complete the preliminary negotiations for peace at Tungchow. They were accompanied by a small party of officers and Sikhs. It having been discovered that the Chinese were planning a treacherous attack on the British force, Loch rode back and warned the outposts. He then returned to Parkes and his party under a flag of truce hoping to secure their safety. They were all, however, made prisoners and taken to Peking, where the majority died from torture or disease. Parkes and Loch, after enduring irons and all the horrors of a Chinese prison, were afterwards more leniently treated. After three weeks' time the negotiations for their release were successful, but they had only been liberated ten minutes when orders were received from the Chinese emperor, then a fugitive in Mongolia, for their immediate execution. Loch never entirely recovered his health after this experience in a Chinese dungeon. Returning home he was made C.B., and for a while was private secretary to Sir George Grey, then at the Home Office. In 1863 he was appointed lieutenant-governor of the Isle of Man. During his governorship the House of Keys was transformed into an elective assembly, the first line of railway was opened, and the influx of tourists began to bring fresh prosperity to the island. In 1882 Loch, who had become K.C.B. in ,88o, accepted a commissionership of woods and forests, and two years later was made governor of Victoria, where he won the esteem of all classes. In June 1889 he succeeded Sir Hercules Robinson as governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner of South Africa. As high commissioner his duties called for the exercise of great judgment and firmness. The Boers were at the same time striving to frustrate Cecil Rhodes's schemes of northern expansion and planning to occupy Mashonaland, to secure control of Swaziland and Zululand and to acquire the adjacent lands up to the ocean. Loch firmly supported Rhodes, and, by informing President Kruger that troops would be sent to prevent any invasion of territory under British protection, he effectually crushed the " Banyailand trek " across the Limpopo (186o-91). houses of the Renaissance period. It has a tribunal of first Loch, however, with the approval of the imperial government, instance, a communal college and a training college. Liqueur-concluded in July-August 1890 a convention with President distilling and tanning are carried on together with trade in farm-Kruger respecting Swaziland, by which, while the Boers withdrew produce, wine, wood and live-stock. all claims to territory north of the Transvaal, they were granted On the right bank of the Loire, opposite the town and practian outlet to the sea at Kosi Bay on condition that the republic tally its suburb, is the village of Beaulieu-les-Loches, once the entered the South African Customs Union. This convention was seat of a barony. Besides the parish ch rch of St Laurent, a concluded after negotiations conducted with President Kruger beautiful specimen of 12th-century architecture, it contains the by J, H. Hofmeyr on behalf of the high commissioner, ,and was remains of the great abbey church of the Holy Sepulchre made at a time when the British and Bond parties in Cape founded in the 1 ith century by Fulk Nerra, count of Anjou, who Colony were working in harmony. The Transvaal did not, is buried in the chancel. This chancel, which with one of the however, fulfil the necessary condition, and in view of the older transepts now constitutes the church, dates from the 15th increasingly hostile attitude of the Pretoria administration to century. The Romanesque nave is in ruins, but of the two Great Britain Loch became a strong advocate of the annexation towers one survives intact; it is square, crowned with an by Britain of the territory east of Swaziland, through which the octagonal steeple of stone, and is one of the finest extant monu-Boer railway to the sea would have passed. He at length induced ments of Romanesque architecture. the British government to adopt his view and on the 15th of Loches (the Roman Leucae) grew up round a monastery March 1895 it was announced that these territories (Amatonga- founded about 500 by St Ours and belonged to the counts of land, &c.), would be annexed by Britain, an announcement Anjou from 886 till 1205. In the latter year it was seized from received by Mr Kruger " with the greatest astonishment and King John of England by Philip Augustus, and from the middle regret." Meantime Loch had been forced to intervene in another of the 13th century till after the time of Charles IX. the castle matter. When the commandeering difficulty of 1894 had roused was a residence of the kings of France. the Uitlanders in the Transvaal to a dangerous pitch of excite- LOCHGELLY, a police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, 71 M. ment, he travelled to Pretoria to use his personal influence with N.E. of Dunfermline by the North British railway. Pop. (19o1) President Kruger, and obtained the withdrawal of the obnoxious 5472. The town is modern and owes its prosperity to the iron-commandeering regulations. In the following year he entered a works and collieries in its immediate vicinity. Loch Gelly, from strong protest against the new Transvaal franchise law. Mean- which the town takes its name, situated 2 m. S. E., measures a m. while, however, the general situation in South Africa was assuming in length by a m. in breadth, contains some trout and pike, and year by year a more threatening aspect. Cecil Rhodes, then has on its west banks Lochgelly House, a seat of the earl of Minto. prime minister of Cape Colony, was strongly in favour of a more The Romans are said to have had a station at Loch Ore in the energetic policy than was supported by the Imperial government, parish of Ballingry, 24 M. N. by W., which was drained about and at the end of March 1895 the high commissioner, finding the end of the 18th century and then cultivated. To the N.E. himself, it is believed, out of touch with his ministers, returned rises the hill of Benarty (1131 ft.). Hallyards, about 2 In. home a few months before the expiry of his term of office. In S.E. of Lochgelly, is a ruined house that once belonged to Sir the same year he was raised to the peerage. When the Anglo- William' Kirkaldy of Grange, who held Edinburgh Castle for Boer war broke out in 1899 Loch took a leading part in Queen Mary. Here James V. was received after his defeat at raising and equipping a body of mounted men, named after Solway Moss in 1542, and here a few Jacobites used to meet him " Loch's Horse." He died in London on the loth of in 1715. June 1900, and was succeeded as 2nd baron by his son Edward LOCHGILPHEAD, a municipal and police burgh of Argyll- (b. 1873). shire, Scotland, at the head of Loch Gilp, a small arm on the
End of Article: 1ST BARON HENRY BROUGHAM LOCH LOCH (1827-1900)
LOCARNO (Ger. Luggarus)

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