LOT , adepartment of south-western France, formed in 1790 from the
See also:district of Quercy,
See also:part of the old province of Guyenne . It is bounded N. by
See also:Correze, W. by
See also:Dordogne and Lot-et-
See also:Garonne, S. by Tarn-et-Garonne, and E. by
See also:Aveyron and
See also:Cantal .
See also:Area 2017 sq. m . Pop . (1906) 216,611 . The department extends over the western portion of the
See also:Massif Central of France; it slopes towards the south-west, and has a maximum altitude of 2560 ft. on the
See also:borders of Cantal with a minimum of 213 ft. at the point where the
See also:river Lot quits the department . The Lot, which traverses it from east to west, is navigable for the whole distance (ro6 m.) with the help of locks; its
See also:principal tributary within the department is the Cele (on the right) . In the
See also:north of the department the Dordogne has a course of 37 m.; among its tributaries are the Cere, which has its rise in Cantal, and the Ouysse, a river of no
See also:great length, but remarkable for the abundance of its
See also:waters . The streams in the south of Lot all flow into the Tarn . The eastern and western portions. of the department are covered by ranges of hills; the north, the centre, and part of the south are occupied by a
See also:belt of
See also:limestone plateaus or causses, that to the north of the Dordogne is called the Causse de Martel; between the Dordogne and the Lot is the Causse de Gramat or de
See also:Rocamadour; south of the Lot is the Causse de
See also:Cahors . The causses are for the most part
See also:bare and arid owing to the rapid disappearance of the
See also:rain in clefts and chasms in the limestone, which are known as igues . These are most numerous in the Causse de Gramat and are sometimes of great beauty; the best known is the Gouffre de Padirac, 7 M .
N.E. of Rocamadour . The altitude of the causses (from 700 to 1300 ft., much
See also:lower than that of the similar plateaus in
See also:Herault and Aveyron) permits the cultivation of the
See also:vine; they also yield a small quantity of cereals and potatoes and some
See also:wood . The deep intervening valleys are full of verdure, being well watered by abundant springs . The
See also:climate is on the whole that of the Girondine region; the valleys are warm, and the rainfall is somewhat above the
See also:average for France . The difference of temperature between the higher parts of the department belonging to the central
See also:plateau and the sheltered valleys of the south-west is considerable . Wheat,
See also:maize, oats and
See also:rye are the chief cereals .
See also:Wine is the principal product, the most valued being that of Cahors grown in the valley of the Lot, which is, in general, the most productive portion of the department . It is used partly for blending with other wines and partly for
See also:consumption . The north-east cantons produce large quantities of chestnuts; walnuts, apples and plums are
See also:common, and the department also grows potatoes and
See also:tobacco and supplies truffles .
See also:Sheep are the most abundant kind of live stock; but pigs, horned
See also:cattle, horses, asses, mules and goats are also reared, as well as poultry and bees . Iron and
See also:coal are
See also:mined, and there are important
See also:zinc deposits (Planioles) . Lime-
See also:stone is quarried .
- There are oil-
See also:works and numerous mills, and wool
See also:spinning and
See also:carding as well as
See also:cloth making, tanning, currying,
See also:brewing and the making of agricultural implements are carried on to some extent . The three arrondissements are those of Cahors, the capital,
See also:Figeac and Gourdon; there are 29 cantons and 329 communes . ' Lot belongs to the 17th military district, and to the academie of Toulouse, and falls within the circumscription of the
See also:court of
See also:appeal at
See also:Agen, and the province of the archbishop of
See also:Albi . It is served by the
See also:Orleans railway . Cahors, Figeac and Rocamadour are the principal places . Of the interesting churches and chateaux of the '(department, may be mentioned the
See also:fine feudal fortress at Castelnau occupying a commanding natural position, with an
See also:hall of the 12th century, and the Romanesque abbey-
See also:church at Souillac with fine sculpturing on the principal entrance . The plateau of
See also:Puy d'Issolu, near Vayrac, is believed by most authorities to be the site of the
See also:ancient Uxcellodunum, the scene of the last stand of the Gauls against
See also:Julius Caesar in 51 B.C . Lot has many dolmens, the finest being that of
See also:Pierre Martine, near Livernon (arr. of Figeac) . LOT-ET-GARONNE, a department of south-western France, formed in 1790 of
See also:Agenais and Bazadais, two districts of the old province of
See also:Guienne, and of Condomois, Lomagne, Brullois and pays d'
See also:Albret, formerly portions of
See also:Gascony . It is bounded W. by
See also:Gironde, N. by Dordogne, E. by Lot and Tarn-et-Garonne, S. by
See also:Gers and S.W. by
See also:Landes . Area 2079 sq. m . Pop .
(19(96) 274,610 . The Garonne, which traverses the department from S.E. to N.W., divides it into two unequal parts .. That to the north is a
See also:country of hills and deep ravines, and the slope is from east to west, while in the region to the south, which is a continuation of the plateau of Lannemezan and
See also:Armagnac, the slope is directly from south to north . A small portion in the south-west belongs to the sterile region of the Landes (q.v.); the broad valleys of the Garonne and of its affluent the Lot are proverbial for their fertility . The wildest part is towards the north-east on the borders of Dordogne, where a region of causses (limestone plateaus) and forests begins; the highest point (896 ft.) is also found here . The Garonne, where it quits the department, is only some 20 ft. above the
See also:sea-level; it is navigable throughout, with the help of its lateral canal, as also are the Lot and Baise with the help of locks . The Drot, a right affluent of the Garonne in the north of the department, is also navigable in the lower part of its course . The climate is that of the Girondine region—mild and fine—the mean temperature of Agen being 56.6° Fahr., or above that of
See also:Paris; the
See also:annual rainfall, which, in the plain of Agen, varies from 20 to 24 in., is nearly the least in France . Agriculturally the department is one of the richest . Of cereals wheat is the chief, maize and oats coming next . Potatoes, vines and tobacco are important
See also:sources of
See also:wealth . The best wines are those of Clairac and Buzet .
See also:Vegetable and fruit-growing are prosperous .
See also:Plum-trees (pruners d'ente) are much cultivated in the valleys of the Garonne and Lot, and the apricots of
See also:Nicole and Tonneins are well known . The chief trees are the
See also:pine and the
See also:oak; the
See also:cork-oak flourishes in the Landes, and poplars and willows are abundant on the borders of the Garonne . Horned cattle, chiefly of the Garonne. breed, are the principal live stock . Poultry and pigs are also reared profitably . There are deposits of iron in the department . The forges, blast furnaces and foundries of Fumel are important; and agricultural implements and other
See also:machines are manufactured . The making of lime and
See also:cement, of tiles, bricks and pottery, of confectionery and dried plums (pruneaux d'Agen) and other delicacies, and brewing and distilling, occupy many of the inhabitants . At Tonneins (pop . 4691 in 1906) there is a
See also:national tobacco manufactory . Cork cutting, of which the centre is Mezin,
See also:hat and candle making, wool spinning,
See also:weaving of woollen and
See also:cotton stuffs, tanning, paper-making, oil-making, dyeing and
See also:flour and saw-milling are other prominent
See also:industries . The peasants still speak the Gascon
See also:patois .
The arrondissements are 4—Agen, 1Vlarmande,
See also:Nerac and Villeneuve-sur-Lot—and there are 35 cantons and 326 communes . Agen, the capital, is the seat of a bishopric and of the court of appeal for the department of Lot-et-Garonne . The department belongs to the region of the XVII. army
See also:corps, the academie of
See also:Bordeaux, and the province of the archbishop of Bordeaux . Lot-et-Garonne is served by the lines of the
See also:Southern and the Orleans
See also:railways, its
See also:rivers afford about 16o m. of navigable waterway, and the lateral canal of the Garonne traverses it for 54 M . Agen,
See also:Marmande, Nerac and Villeneuve-sur-Lot, the principal places, are treated under
See also:separate headings . The department possesses
See also:Roman remains at Mas d'Agenais and at
See also:Aiguillon . The churches of Layrac, Monsempron, Mas d'Agenais, Moirax, Mezin and Vianne are of
See also:interest, as also are the fortifications of Vianne of the 13th century, and the chateaux of Xaintrailles, Bonaguil, Gavaudun and of the
See also:town of Casteljaloux .
LOT (Lat. Oltis)
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