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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 892 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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LOWER DECK ^ r~ yj ntlari~ • TAm Taal, ~.a~~ Q • i7Nll • l eft: ~llla~ J .wa Saloon °, ' 000000000 maims , ^. gam, lo a oolOaC a~ to, C4 o . f' ~ ° r IIL, r '~~ ----- `~',",illilll ^447 ,auls a Wm hat i _ ili A • 1L=:-91.==i1== ~i~~~^fJ~e~3 of the most important Danish train-carrying vessels are given in Table XIII. The longest ferry, from Gjedser to Warnemunde, traverses a distance of 48 m. across the lower part of the Baltic Sea, and on this ferry the " Prinsesse Alexandrine " and " Prins Christian " are Wigham Richardson & Co. Her dimensions are: length 370 ft. over all, 350 ft. between perpendiculars, breadth extreme 53 ft. 6 in., 3050 tons gross, displacement 4270 tons dead-weight capacity, 600 tons at a draught of 16 ft. 6 in., 5400 I.H.P. and speed i6; knots. Two rail tracks are provided, the trains are shipped at the stern and are Lengths. Breadth. Dis- Tonnage. place- Speed. Revolu- On Over Name of Ferry. Type. Depth. Draught. ment. Knots. tuns per Over L. W. L. Moulded. Guards. Tons. Gross. Net. minute. Christian IX. Twin screw, double track 293' 9" 29o' 0" 48' 6" 58' 0" 18' 7" 12' 6" 2600 1504 598 13.0 . . Prinsesse Paddle wheel, double 333' 6" 333' 6" 36' 0" 61' 6" 18' 9" 12' 6" 2425 1733.4 676.6 13.8 36 Alexandrine track Prins Christian Twin screw, double track 284' 9" 281' o" 41' 6" 57' 9" 22' 6" 14' 5" 2065 1824.0 686•o 13.75 124 Korsoer . . Paddle wheel, double 252' 6" 250' 0" 34' 0" 58' o" 16'0" 9' 6" 1267 971'0 436.0 12.25 33 track Kjoebenhavn Paddle wheel, double 278' 0" 272' 0" 34' 0" 58' 0" 16' 9" 10' 0" 1455 1091.0 425.0 12.5 36 track Helsingborg . Single forward and aft 18o' o" 177' o" 32' 0" 43' 0" 14' 6" 10' 3" 72o 530.0 187.0 10.0 138 screw, single track Marie . Two screws aft, one 204' 6" 199' 31' 6" 43'0" 13'0" 9'0" 950 500.0 250.0 10.0 125 screw forward, single 3" track . . . . . 150 Valdemar . Single screw, single 144' 0" 140' 0" 31' 6" 43' 0" 13' 0" 9' 0" 550 361.0 129.0 10.0 134 track, ice-breaker Lille -Baelt . Paddle wheel, single 140' 6" 139' 0" 26' 0" 44' 6" I1' 6" 8' o" 399 3o6.0 125.0 8•o 34 track Ingeborg . . Paddle wheel, single 168' 9" 167'0 26' 0" 44'0 12'0" 7' 0" 440 343'0 136.0 10.25 37 track employed. Two other vessels belonging to the Prussian govern- completely protected from the weather when on board, the bow ment also work on this ferry, and the great success of the service of the ship being completed as usual for a sea-going vessel; ten led to the Swedish and German governments undertaking a direct full-sized passenger or sleeping carriages can be taken, or eighteen goods wagons. Ballast tanks are provided, and powerful centrifugal pumps fitted, so that the trim of the vessel can be adjusted as necessary while embarking and disembarking the trains; she is built specially strong so that she can be driven through ice during the winter months. In 1883 the " Solana" a large train ferry 406 ft. long, was built by Messrs Harlan & Hollingsworth of Wilmington, Delaware, to run between Bernicia and Porto Casta in connexion with the Central Pacific railway. In 1899 the American railways employed nearly 200 terries, with an aggregate capacity of over 2000 large wagons, and by 1909 the numbers and capacity had increased to about three times those amounts, on Lake Michigan alone nine such ferries being at work. Two other interesting examples of train ferries were built on the Tyne by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., in 1895 and 1896, the former for service on the river Volga, and the latter for service on Lake Baikal in Siberia. The Volga has a rise and fall of no less than 45 ft. between spring and midsummer, and the ice upon it in winter is usually 2 ft., and sometimes 3 ft., thick; thus the problem presented considerable difficulties, which were increased by the fact that the locks of the Marinsky canal system, through which all vessels bound for the Volga must pass, are of such dimensions that it was impossible for vessels of sufficient size to be got through in one piece. It was decided to use two vessels to do the work, the first to act only as an ice-breaker, and the other to act only as a train-carrier. The ice-breaker was built in two pieces, the parting being at the longitudinal middle-line plane of the vessel. This was satisfactorily carried out by means of a double longitudinal middle-line bulkhead extending the whole length of the vessel. On arrival at the canal she was divided into halves, and was joined up again after passing through the last of the locks. Her dimensions were: length 147 ft., breadth 37 ft. 6 in. and depth 16 ft. 6 in., and she was fitted with compound engines and twin screws. The ferry steamer itself (fig. 38, Plate IX.) was 252 ft. long, of 55 ft. 6 in. beam, and of 14 ft. 6 in. depth. Four lines of rails were laid upon her deck, sufficient space being provided for 24 trucks or carriages, which are shown in position in the figure. The difficulty presented by the great difference in the river level was got over by an arrangement of hydraulic hoists, placed at the bow, by which two trucks could be lifted at once to a height of 25 ft., and by having lines of rails at the landing-stages at two levels. The vessel was fitted with twin screws and compound engines, which gave her a speed of 9 knots. It was found necessary to divide her into four parts for the passage through the canal locks; the divisions were made at the longitudinal middle-line plane and athwartships at her middle. Each quarter, when apart, formed a water-tight hull, and reunion was effected while the parts were afloat. The Lake Baikal Ferry was built for carrying trains across the lake in connexion with the Siberian railway. For more than half the year the lake is frozen over to a considerable thickness, and in this case the vessel must of necessity be herself a powerful ice-breaker as well as a ferry steamer. Her dimensions are: length 290 ft., beam 57 ft., draught under ordinary conditions 18 ft. 6 in., and displacement 4200 tons. The hull is closely subdivided for additional safety in case of perforation. She has three sets of triple-expansion engines, working three independent screw propellers, two placed aft, as in ordinary twin-screw ships, and one placed at the forward extremity for the purpose of disturbing the water under the ice, thus assisting the heavy cast-steel stem and armoured bow to break up the solid field-ice which the vessel has to encounter. The complete structure was first erected on the Tyne, then taken to pieces and shipped to St Petersburg; from thence its numerous parts were carried to what was at that time the terminus of the Siberian railway, whence they were taken to their destination on sledges, and there the ship was re-erected and launched. The boilers constituted the heaviest individual pieces thus trans-ported, as the weight of each could not be reduced below 20 tons. An interesting example of a modern river train ferry is the " Fabius," built by Messrs G. Rennie & Co., Greenwich, in 1909, for service in southern Nigeria, where the river is 2 m. across. She is a double-ended paddle-wheel vessel; length 16o ft., beam 33 ft. 6 in., depth to ft., draught 5 ft. 6 in., speed 7 knots. She can carry six railway carriages and freight and passengers up to a total of zoo tons. Ice-Bro.kers.—Steamboats for breaking a passage through frozen waters date from an early period; one is spoken of as early as 1851. The " Ermack " (fig. 39, Plate IX.), built in 1898, is one of the largest and most effective vessels of this type. Her dimensions are: length 320 ft., breadth 71 ft., depth to the upper deck 42 ft. 6 in., and displacement 8000 tons; her engines develop 800o I.H.P., giving her a speed of 15 knots. Her general outline is shown in fig. 40, from which it will be seen that her bow slopes upwards from below, so as to enable her to run up on to the ice and bring her weight to bear in breaking it. The " Ermack " made her maiden voyage in the winter of 1898-1899, when she steamed through the Baltic to Kronstadt. crushing the ice with comparative ease. Surveying Vessels.—Special vessels are employed by various governments, and occasionally by institutions or individuals, to survey the oceans and ocean beds, and pursue scientific inquiries of a general nature regarding the sea. The British Admiralty employs the " Egerla," " Fantome " and " Mutine," sloops of about 1000 tons displacement, modified and fitted up for the purpose, as well as two yachts purchased and suitably modified, and two vessels built especially for the purpose. The yachts are the " Waterwitch," 15o ft. long, 64o tons displacement and to knots speed, purchased in 1893; and the composite built vessel " Sealark," 18o ft. long. 1034 tons displacement and 11 knots speed, purchased in 1903; both are employed in Eastern waters. The vessels built for the purpose are the " Triton," 145 ft long, 415 tons displacement, 10 knots speed, built in 1882; and the " Research," 155 ft. long, 545 tons displacement, 102 knots speed, built in 1888; both these vessels are propelled by paddle wheels, and both are of composite build. The " Dart," a steel yacht 130 ft. long, 500 tons displacement, 72 knots speed, purchased by the Admiralty in 1882, was in 1910 employed by the New South Wales government. The Canadian government has provided vessels such as the " Cartier," a twin-screw steel vessel, built in 1909, 164 ft. long, 29 ft. beam, 648 tons gross and 112 knots speed, for survey work on the coast of British Columbia. The Indian government had the steel single-screw vessel " Investigator " built by Messrs Vickers, Sons & Maxim for survey of Indian waters; she is 204 ft long, 33 ft. beam, 15 ft. 3 in. moulded depth, has a displacement of 1170 tons and a speed of 132 knots. The United States government built a surveying vessel, the " Pathfinder," in 1899. She is a steel single-screw vessel rigged as a brigantine, length over all 193 ft., on water-line 165 ft., beam 33 ft. 6 in., depth moulded 19 ft. 8 in., displacement 875 tons at 10 ft. draught, I.H.P. 1170 and speed 132 knots. She has bunkers for 230 tons of coal, and is fitted up with very complete auxiliary machinery arrangements, electric lighting and ventilation, steam heating, and accommodation for a large staff. The outfit for hydrography and research is perhaps the most complete ever provided. The Carnegie Institution of Washington has fitted out the special non-magnetic vessel " Carnegie," 128 ft. long, 35 ft. beam, 12 ft. 7 in. draught, 568 tons displacement. Lightships.—In many places round the coast the safe navigation of ships is assisted by vessels called lightships, moored in positions where lighthouses cannot well be built. Around the southern portion of Great Britain these vessels are maintained by the Trinity Corporation (see LIGHTHOUSE). Fishing Vessels.—It is not many years since a few old paddle tugs were fitted up with fishing appliances. They proved very profit-able, and the experiment led to the building and fitting out of steam vessels specially designed for such employment. Screw steam trawlers (see TRAWL) or other fishing-boats are among the vessels most frequently met with round the British coasts. In 1910 some 3000 such steam vessels of an average net tonnage of 50 tons were on the British register, as well as 23,000 sailing boats of an aggregate net register tonnage exceeding 200,000 tons. Fig. 41 (Plate X.) is the steam herring drifter " Three," and gives a general idea of the type, but there is considerable variety in the methods of fishing, and the fittings of the vessels vary accordingly. Coastguard and Fishery Cruisers.—The lightships give warning of danger, and can also send signals ashore for the benefit of vessels in distress, but cannot themselves render help. The principal organizations for giving assistance to vessels in distress and for saving life around the British coasts are: I. The coastguard service maintained by the Admiralty. 2. The signal services, stations and agents maintained by Lloyd's. 3. The lifeboat services maintained by the Royal National Life- boat Institution. 890 The coastguard cruisers not only watch the coast but proceed to the fishery grounds to act as international marine police. They are controlled by an admiral, with headquarters at 66 Queen Victoria Street, London, who in 1910 had at his services the torpedo gunboats " Halcyon," ' Leda," ' Skipjack " and " Spanker "; the old composite gunboats " Ringdove " and " Thrush "; the vessels " Colleen," " Julia " and " Fanny," purchased and fitted up for the work; and the " Squirrel " and " Argus," two yacht-like vessels specially built for the service. The "Colleen," a wooden vessel built in 1869 and propelled by horizontal trunk engines of 250 I.H.P., is 145 ft. long and 415 tons displacement, and at one time the engines gave her a speed of 81 knots; the "Argus" is a steel vessel built in 1904, 130 ft. long, 38o tons displacement, 23 ft. beam, 8 ft. io in. draught; she has a light fore and aft rig, and vertical triple expansion engines of 500 I.H.P. give here speed of 12 knots. The Fishery Board of Scotland has provided itself with some small cruisers, such as the " Freya,• built in 1904,0f length 138f t., beam 24 ft., moulded depth 12 ft., and gross tonnage 280 tons; and the " Norma," built in 1909, which is 159 ft. long, 25 ft. beam, 14 ft. moulded depth, 457 tons gross tonnage and 950 LH.P. In 1908 the Irish Fisheries Board procured the small cruiser " Helga," built by the Dublin Dockyard Co., 155 f t. long, 24 ft. 6 in. beam, 13 ft. 3 in. moulded depth; she obtained a speed of 142 knots on trial with a total deadweight of 140 tons carried. Salvage and Fire Vessels.—Several private companies maintain special vessels which are available for assistance of vessels in distress, salvage, wreck-raising, &c. Many of these vessels are powerful tugs fitted with derricks and winches for hoisting out cargo and ships' fittings, and provided with powerful steam or electrically driven pumps and special hoses for pumping out flooded compartments of the vessels in distress. Some have been specially built and fitted up for salvage and wreck-raising; others have been built and fitted for salvage and fireboats. A fire and salvage boat at Elswick is 45 ft. long, 11 ft. beam and 3 ft. draught; she is fitted with a Merryweather quick-steaming boiler, and engines arranged to drive the boat at 81 knots, or as an alternative to pump out vessels on either side, or to pump from the river for fire purposes and deliver up to 1500 gallons a minute. Many small vessels of this character are provided for harbours, docks and shipbuilding works. One of the most powerful in England is that built for the Manchester Ship Canal. This boat is 90 ft. long, and is fitted with salvage pumps capable of clearing 5000 gallons a minute, as well as independent fire service pumps capable of delivering 4000 gallons per minute at a pressure of 150 lb per square inch. Fire and salvage boats of much greater capacity have been provided at San Francisco, New York and Chicago. Two fireboats of special design were built in 1908 for Chicago. They are 120 ft. long over all, 28 ft. beam, 15 ft. moulded depth, and 91 ft. draught. Powerful turbine pumps are driven by two Curtis steam turbines on the same shafts, which also carry 275-volt zoo-kilowatt electric motors for operating the propeller motors. The pumps can be worked so as to deliver 4500 gallons per minute at 300 lb per sq. in., 9000 gallons at 150 lb or larger volumes at lower pressures; the maximum speed of the turbines and pumps is 1700 revolutions per minute. Twin screws are fitted and each is driven by a motor arranged to develop 25o H.P. at 200 revolutions per minute. The boats are fitted with electric light, search-light, and steam steering gear. New York has ten powerful fireboats, several of which can throw over 10,000 gallons of water per minute. The " Beta " of the London Fire Brigade is 100 ft. long, 11 knots speed, and can deliver 4000 gallons per minute at a pressure of 140 lb per sq. in., engines and pumps being driven by vertical steam engines. Lifeboats and Vessels.—The lifeboat services around the British shores are maintained almost entirely by the Royal National Life-boat Institution. In March 1910 there were 281 lifeboats in service, varying in length from 30 ft. to 56 ft. All are fitted with air-casing or watertight air-cases of sufficient capacity to keep them afloat if completely filled by the sea, and all are arranged so as automatically to relieve themselves of any sea breaking into the boat. The type of boat varies according to the service Intended and the views of the men who use them—182 are self-righting if capsized and 99 not self-righting. The conditions of service are such that the application of steam or other motive power to assist the crews presents many difficulties; these difficulties have, however, been successfully overcome by the institution and its advisers, and details of the power-driven boats are given in a paper read by Mr J. R. Barnett at the Institute of Naval Architects, March 1910. Four steam lifeboats have been tried and found very useful under the conditions in which they are employed, while three petrol-driven lifeboats, 40 to 43 ft. in length, 13 to 16 tons weight, 24 to 40 H.P. and about 7 knots speed, have been supplied as an experimental measure, and on their voyages to their stations proved to be very seaworthy and reliable boats. The institution employs one steam-ship, the steel twin-screw tug " Helen Peel " of 230 tons displacement, which is stationed at Falmouth and used to tow lifeboats to sea and assist them in their work, and also to render aid to vessels in distress which have no chance of getting private tugs. The United States government has, however, taken the lead in this direction, in building and equipping a special vessel, the " Snohomish," for life-saving services on the North Pacific coast. This vessel is officially termed a revenue cruiser, and is 152 ft. long over all, 29 ft. beam, 17 ft. 6 in. [MERCHANT VESSELS moulded depth, and displaces 795 tons at a draught of 12 ft. 41 in.; a single screw driven by triple-expansion engines of 1370 I.H.P. knots LIFEBOAT.) gave a speed of 132 on trial. (See Tugs or Tow-Boats.—On canals and rivers steam barges are often employed for towing, and small tugs are also built for this purpose, but on swift, large rivers the tugs are often of considerable power. The tug " Little John," built by Messrs Yarrow for service on the Trent canals, is 8o ft. long, 14 ft. 6 in. beam, draught with steam up 22 in., displacement about 40 tons. Twin screws are fitted working in tunnels, and this little vessel has towed five barges, weighing with their loads 247 tons, at a speed of 54 knots. A river tug recently built by Messrs Thornycroft & Co. for service on the swift waters of the Upper Yangtse, and named the " Shutung," is 150 ft. long, 15 ft. beam, with a depth of 6 ft. 6 in., fitted with compound surface-condensing engines of 550 I.H.P., driving twin screws working in tunnels (as the draught of the vessel is very limited) and giving a speed of about II knots. After trial at Southampton the tug was taken to pieces, the sections shipped to China, with sections of a barge of corresponding dimensions, and both were put together and completed at Kiangnan. This was the first steamer to attempt regular passages in these troubled waters, and steamer and consort per-formed their first voyage with success. The American river tow-boat " Sprague " is 318 ft. long over all, 64 ft. 8 in. wide, depth amidships 7 ft., displacement 2200 tons, registered tonnage 1479. She is fitted with a stern wheel 40 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. in width, driven by two tandem compound engines of 12-ft. stroke, the cylinders being 28 in. and 63 in. in diameter; and at 91 revolutions per minute her horse-power is estimated at 1500 H.P. In 1907 she towed on one occasion 56 coal boats, each 18o ft. long and 26 ft. wide, loaded with over 67,000 tons of coal and covering a water area of nearly 7 acres. On the American rivers the superiority of the screw propeller is, however, now realized, and shallow-draught tow-boats with propellers working in tunnels have been adopted. Interesting tugs have been built by Messrs Cox & Co. of Falmouth for work in the North-Eastern Railway Docks on the Tyne. Great power in small length was required, and engines of loot) I.H.P. are installed in vessels 75 ft. long, 26 ft. beam, 12 ft. 6 in. deep, having a mean draught of 10 ft.; twin screws set widely apart being provided to give manoeuvring power. Tugs in common use in harbour and coasting services are often 90 ft. to 120 ft. in length, 20 to 23 ft. beam, lo to 12 ft. depth, 9 to 12 ft. draught, 400 to 600 I.H.P. and I i to 12 knots speed ; tugs fitted with independent acting paddle-wheels are popular for some services on account of their great handiness, but the great majority of new vessels are fitted with single or twin screws. For ocean service larger vessels are built. A steel tug built by the Bath Iron Works for the American coal trade is 165 ft. over all and 1045 tons displacement, with triple-expansion engines of 900 H.P. The " Cornell " is one of the largest American sea-going tugs; when towing she has developed 1390 I.H.P. at 97 revolutions, and when running light 1900 I.H.P. at 135 revolutions and a speed of 1s1 knots. The " Hearty, built to go out under her own steam to work in the Hooghly, is 212 ft. long, 30 ft. beam, 12 ft. 6 in. draught, 1300 tons displacement, vertical compound engines of 2100 I.H.P. drive, twin screws, and the vessel can steam at 142 knots. Recent screw tugs of the " Rover " type, built for the British Admiralty, are 154 ft. long, 27 ft. 41 in. beam, 11 ft. draught, 615 tons displacement, 1400 I.H.P., giving 132 knots with twin screws. The latest paddle tugs of the " Grappler " type are 152 ft. long, 28 ft. beam moulded, 53 ft. 3 in. over guards, II ft. 4 in. draught and 690 tons displacement. Inclined compound engines are fitted with means to work the wheels independently or together as desired. 1250 I.H.P. gives a speed of 12 knots. In these tugs the towing hook is carried well forward to permit the tugs to manoeuvre freely, and good beam is given so that in case of a heavy side pull the tug will not capsize. Each year from 20 to 30 tugs are built in the United Kingdom, and many of them are fitted with powerful pumps and heavy derricks and winches, so that they are of service in case of fire or salvage. The North-Eastern railway tugs referred to are able to pump 500 gallons a minute, i.e. about 140 tons an hour, while the " Lady Crundall," belonging to Dover, can pump 700 tons an hour. Yachts.—Vessels built for pleasure purposes andfor racing have for many years been known as Yachts. (See YACHTING.) In 1825 Mr Assheton Smith built a steam yacht, and although the building of such yachts was discouraged by the clubs, he continued to build, and produced between 1825 and 1851 nine steam yachts of various sizes; one built in 1844 had a screw propeller, the others were fitted with paddle wheels. In 1856 the ban on steam yachts was withdrawn by the clubs, and others began to build; but as late as 1864 there were only 30 steam yachts afloat. In 1876, however, Lloyd's Register Committee issued Rules for the Building and Classification of Yachts, and from about that date great improvements were made in the design and construction of yachts of all classes, as well as in their propelling machinery, and steam yachts were built in much greater numbers. As with trading vessels, the machinery at first fitted in yachts was only regarded as auxiliary; a well-known example of a successful auxiliary steam yacht is Lord Brassey's " Sunbeam " (fig. 42, Plate XI.), built in 1874, of the following dimensions: length over all 170 ft., beam 27 ft. 6 in., depth of hold 13 ft. 9 in., displacement 576 tons, registered tonnage 334 tons gross, 227 tons net, and Thames yacht measurement 532 tons; she is rigged as a three-masted schooner; her original sail area, 9200 sq. ft., has recently been reduced to 7950 sq. ft.; her hull is composite, the frames being of iron and the planking of teak; her engines are compound of 70 N.H.P. Very much larger yachts have been built in recent years, such as the " Lysistrata," 286 ft. long, 40 ft. beam, 13 ft. 9 in. depth of hold, 1943 tons gross tonnage and 2089 tons Thames Y.M., built in 1900; and the " Liberty," 268 ft. long, 35 ft. 6 in. beam, 17 ft. 9 in. depth of hold, 1607 tons gross tonnage and 1571 tons Thames Y.M., built in 1908. These two vessels and many others of similar types are American-owned. The yacht " Emerald," of 750 tons yacht measurement and 1400 H.P., built on the Clyde in 1902, crossed the Atlantic in May 1903, and was the first turbine steamer to be classed in any registry. The " Atalanta " (ex " Lorena "), of 1398 tons Y.M., built in 1903, fitted with turbines of 3800 H.P., was the finest turbine-driven private yacht afloat in 1910. The " Tarantula," built in 1902, of 122 tons Y.M. and fitted with turbines of 2200 H.P., is a high-speed vessel resembling a torpedo-boat destroyer. The " Winchester," built in 1909, is of a similar type; she is 165 ft. long, 15 ft. 6 in. beam, 188 tons Y.M., and has turbines of 2500 H.P., which give her a speed of 262 knots. The royal yachts of European sovereigns are the largest yachts vet built. They include the imperial Russian yacht " Pole Star," of 3270 tons and 5600 I.H.P., built in 1888; the imperial German yacht " Hohenzollern " (fig. 43, Plate XI.), of 3773 tons Y.M. and 950o H.P., built in 1893; the Spanish royal yacht " Giralda," of 1664 tons Y.M., built in 1894; the imperial Russian yacht " Stand-art," of 4334 tons Y.M. and 11,000 H.P., built in 1895; and the British royal yachts, " Victoria and Albert," of 5005 tons Y.M. and 11,000 I.H.P., built in 1899, and the " Alexandra " (fig. 44, Plate XI.), of 2157 tons Y.M. and 4500 H.P., built in 1907. Propulsion by Electricity.—In 1883 Messrs Siemens & Co. fitted up a launch, 40 ft. long and 6 ft. beam, with an electric motor driving a single propeller and operated by a battery of secondary cells, and at a displacement of 5 tons a speed of 7 knots was obtained. A launch 25 ft. long, provided with an electric motor capable of giving a speed of 7 knots, also was supplied to H.M. yacht " Victoria and Albert " in 1903. A number of other electric launches similarly fitted have been built chiefly for river service, the batteries being recharged from shore stations from time to time; but the method has not been extensively adopted, except to submarines. In some cases the submarine's secondary battery has been used for propulsion on the surface as well as when submerged, being recharged from shore or from a parent vessel as required; but in nearly all recent vessels they are used only for propulsion when submerged, the engines fitted for propulsion on the surface being arranged to drive dynamos for recharging the cells. In a number of small vessels and oil-tank steamers electric motors are fitted for driving the propeller and supplied with current from dynamos driven by steam turbines or internal combustion engines. Propulsion by Naphtha Engines.—In 1888 several launches were built on the Thames in which petroleum spirit was used for fuel in place of coal, and also as an expanding agent for driving the propelling machinery in place of steam. A number of these boats were after-wards built in England and America, and known as zephyr or naphtha boats. Further particulars of these boats will be found in a paper read by Mr Yarrow before the Institute of Naval Architects in 1888. Propulsion by Internal Combustion Engines.—Experiments have been made at various times with machinery in which the fuel is burnt or exploded in the engine itself without having recourse to the transfer of energy by means of an expanding and condensing agent such as steam or naphtha, and by these experiments the modern internal combustion engine has been slowly evolved and adapted for marine propulsion. In 168o an engine was patented in which gunpowder was exploded, and the engine was operated by the vacuum produced by the cooling of the gases; in 1794 an engine was patented in which the explosion of turpentine spirit drove the pistons forward, and about 1823 a gas-driven vessel was run on the river Thames. In the later years of the 19th century gas engines were highly developed for use in factories, &c., on shore, and petrol engines for driving motor cars, &c., and since the beginning of the present century similar engines adapted for marine propulsion have been greatly improved and produced in considerable numbers, especially in the United States, some of the vessels being as large as 800 tons gross. Such vessels may be considered in three groups. (1) High-speed racing boats, pleasure boats of various sizes for service on rivers and in harbours, fireboats, patrol boats and launches for river work, yachts' tenders and sea-going yachts of light scantlings, in which highly volatile and readily exploded fuels such as gasolene, petrol and naphtha are used. (2) Vessels of low speed, in which the weight of the engine is not of great importance, such as barges for use on rivers and canals, ferry-boats, small tug-boats, slow-speed cargo vessels and slow-speed oil-tank vessels, which have been fitted with engines using kerosene or paraffin, as well as oil fuels of greater specific gravity, and of higher flash-point and requiring a higher temperature for evaporation; in some cases these low-speed vessels have been fitted with engines using gas produced from anthracite coal, prepared charcoal and heavy oil. (3) Vessels in which auxiliary propelling machinery of low power is fitted; they include a large number of fishing vessels, smaller numbers of coasting schooners, lifeboats and a few large vessels; in these both light and heavy oils and gas have been employed. As examples of class (I) may be mentioned the racing boats " Ursula," built at Cowes in 1908, 49 ft. 6 in. long, 5 tons total weight, fitted with petrol engines of 800 H.P., driving twin screws at about 950 revolutions, and giving a speed of 382 knots; and " Columbine," built on the so-called hydroplane principle in 191o, 26 ft. long, 65 H.P. and over 30 knots speed; the American yacht Kalmia," 83 ft. long, 14 ft. 3 in. beam, 3 ft. 9 in. draught; and the yacht " Swiftsure," 70 ft. long, 11 ft. beam, 38 tons gross, 3 ft. draught, 16o H.P. and 16 knots speed, built at Cowes in 1909 and navigated under her own power to St Petersburg. Examples of class (2) are the double-ended ferry-boat " Miss Vandenburg," employed on the St Lawrence, Too ft. long, 20 ft. 9 in. beam, 9 ft. depth, 5 ft. draught, 15o tons displacement, fitted with two paraffin engines each of 75 H.P.; the yacht " Bronzewing " (fig. 45, Plate X.), built at Sydney in 1908, 110 ft. long, fitted with three paraffin engines each of 105 H.P.; the " Lochinvar," a West of Scotland passenger vessel of 12 knots speed, 145 ft. long, 200 tons gross, fitted with three paraffin engines each of Too H.P.; and the " Manatee " (fig. 46, Plate X.), 93 ft. long, 16 ft. beam, 5 ft. 6 in. draught, fitted with two paraffin motors of 75 H.P., giving her Iol knots speed, built at Cowes in 1909 for service as a mail and passenger boat in Southern Nigeria, which was navigated to Forcados, a distance of 4000 m., under her own power and without escort. Amongst examples of class (3) may be mentioned the three-masted topsail schooner " San Antonio " of Rotterdam, 165 ft. long, 27 ft. 3 in. beam, 9 ft. 2 in. depth and 410 tons gross, fitted with engines of 16o H.P., using crude heavy oil and driving a single screw; the Modwena " of Glasgow, a barque-rigged sailing yacht of 400 tons, fitted with paraffin engines of 200 H.P., giving a speed of 91 knots, the " Carnegie," already referred to under surveying vessels, which is fitted with gas engines of 15o H.P., driving twin screws; and the yacht " Lady Evelyn," of 366 tons Y.M., fitted in 1910 with heavy oil engines of 500 H.P. The power of individual internal combustion engines completed up to 1910 was somewhat limited, and great difficulties had been encountered in the use of heavy oil fuels; but great advances and improvements had been made which were opening up the way for the more extensive adoption of motors of large power using heavy oil fuels. An ocean-going motor-driven cargo vessel of 9000 tons and 12 knots speed, was in 1910 being built in Germany for the Hamburg-American line, and fitted with heavy oil engines of 3000 H.Y. driving twin screws, while engines of io,000 H.P. were also being manufactured. V. WAR VESSELS The adoption of iron and steel as the material for shipbuilding, and the development of the steam engine, have influenced warship construction in the same manner as they have influenced the construction of ships for the mercantile marine; but, in addition, the introduction of armour for the protection of ships, the great advances made in its manufacture, and, above all, the marvellous improvements in explosives and in the design and manufacture of guns and torpedoes, have changed the conditions of naval warfare, and called for corresponding changes in the design of warships. Those who are concerned in such questions may refer with advantage to an interesting comparison between the old " Victory " (fig. 1, Plate XIII.) and a modern battleship instituted by Sir Andrew Noble in his address to the Mechanical Science Section of the British Association in 189o. Sir Andrew Noble's remarks in this connexion are the more weighty, coming as they did from the director of the great arsenal of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and from one whose scientific research has incalculably advanced our knowledge of artillery and explosives. Sir Andrew follows up this comparison by the following reference to the condition of things just before the Crimean War: " The most improved battleships of the period just anterior to the Crimean War differed from the type I have just described mainly by the addition of steam power, and for the construction of these engines the country was indebted to the great pioneers of marine engineering, such as ,J. Penn & Sons, Maudslay. Sons & Field, Ravenhill, Miller & Co., Rennie Bros., &c., not forgetting Messrs Humphreys & Tennant, whose reputation and achievements now are even more brilliant than in those earlier days. Taking the ' Duke of Wellington,' completed in 1853, as the type of a first-rate just before the Crimean War, her length was 240 ft., her breadth 6o ft., her displacement 5830 tons, her indicated horse-power 1999, and her speed on the measured mile 9.89 knots. Her armament consisted of 131 guns, of which thirty-six 8-in. and .32-pdrs. were mounted on the lower deck, a similar number on the middle deck, thirty-eight 32-pdrs. on the main deck, and twenty short 32-pdrs. and one 68-pdr. pivot gun on the upper deck. Taking the ' Caesar ' and the ' Hogue ' as types of second- and third-rate line-of-battle ships, the former, which had nearly the displacement of the ` Vic- i tory,' had a length of 207 ft., a breadth of 56 ft., and a mean draught of 21. She had 1420 indicated horse-power, and her speed on the measured mile was 10.3 knots. Her armament consisted of twenty-eight 8-in. guns and sixty-two 32-pdrs., carried on her lower, main and upper decks. The ' Hogue' had a length of 184 ft., a breadth of 48 ft. 4 in., a mean draught of 22 ft. 6 in.; she had 797 indicated horse-power and a speed of 8* knots. Her armament consisted of two 68-pdrs. of 95 cwt., four To-in. guns, twenty-six 8-in. guns, and twenty-eight 32-pdrs. of 5o cwt.—sixty guns in all. " Vessels of lower rates (I refer to the screw steam frigates of the period just anterior to the Crimean War) were, both in construction and armament, so closely analogous to the line-of-battle ships that I will not fatigue you by describing them, and will only allude to one other class, that of the paddle-wheel steam frigate, of which I may take the ` Terrible ' as a type. This vessel had a length of 226 ft., a breadth of 43 ft., a displacement of about 3000 tons, and an indicated horse-power of 1950. Her armament consisted of seven 68-pdrs. of 95 cwt., four To-in. guns, ten 8-in. guns and four light 32-pdrs." The warships which existed at the beginning of the latter half of the 19th century were, with the exception of special vessels, divided roughly into three classes—ships of the line, frigates and gun-vessels. For many years the corresponding types of iron and steel vessels were known as battleships, cruisers and gunboats, but recently we have seen the power of the cruiser increased to that of the battleship, and new types have been produced such as the torpedo boat, the torpedo boat destroyer and the scout, the latter developing into the fast cruiser of continually increasing size; while the submarine torpedo boat has become a recognized sea-going vessel, and is becoming comparable in size with the gun-vessel or the small cruiser. It is proposed to refer to these in the order named. (See also NAVY.) Battleships.—The destruction of the Turkish fleet at Sinope (3oth November 18 J3) by the Russian fleet, the latter alone being armed with shell guns, and the combined experience of the British and French fleets before Sevastopol when engaging Fort Constantine, demonstrated conclusively that for ships of the line armour protection had be-come essential. The French government immediately began to build five armour-plated vessels, or batteries, as they were called, for service in the Black Sea; and eight similar vessels were begun shortly afterwards by the British government for the same service.' The British vessels did not arrive in time to take any part in the war; but three of the French batteries did, and were very favourably reported on by Admiral Bruat after an engagement with the Kinburn Forts on the 17th of October 1855. With the exception of these three French batteries, the whole of the fleets employed in the operations were composed of unarmoured wooden ships, and a large number of them were sailing line-of-battle ships. As the result of the engagement with the Kinburn Forts, the French began to armourplate sea-going vessels, and the first step in this direction was taken by the celebrated French naval architect_M. Dupuy de Lome, who razeed the " Napoleon," a wooden two-decker, and fitted her with a complete belt of 5-in. armour on a backing of 26 in. of wood. This work was completed in 18J9, and the ship, renamed " La Gloire," became the first sea-going armour-clad. Two other vessels of the same design, the " Invincible " and " Normandie," were also laid down, and with the " Magenta," " Solferino " and the " Couronne," See letters of the earl of Rosse on this Inst. of Naval Architects for 1908. a few years later, formed the first fleet of French armour-clads. In June 1859 the armour-plated iron frigate " Warrior " was commenced by the British government. Others quickly followed, including the " Black Prince," which was a sister ship to the " Warrior," and four other vessels, the " Achilles," the sister ships " Minotaur " and " Agincourt," and the " Northumberland." The distribution of the armour and other features of these vessels are shown in fig. 47. The " Warrior " and " Black Prince " were 38o ft. long and of 883o tons displacement, had engines of 6000 I.H.P. and a speed of 144 knots; they were designed to carry thirty-six 68-pdr. Too-cwt. guns, but during construction the 7-in. 62-ton gun was introduced into H.M. Service, and the ships when completed for sea carried an armament of 28 of these 7-in. guns. They had a central citadel 213 ft. long, protected with 44-in. iron armour extending from a few feet below the water-line to the height of the upper deck. Their outline was similar to the outline of the wooden frigates of the
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